HomeDiagramsDatabaseMapsForumSkyscraper Posters
     
Welcome to the SkyscraperPage Forum

Since 1999, the SkyscraperPage Forum has been one of the most active skyscraper enthusiast communities on the web. The global membership discusses development news and construction activity on projects from around the world, alongside discussions on urban design, architecture, transportation and many other topics. Welcome!

You are currently browsing as a guest. Register with the SkyscraperPage Forum and join this growing community of skyscraper enthusiasts. Registering has benefits such as fewer ads, the ability to post messages, private messaging and more.

Go Back   SkyscraperPage Forum > Discussion Forums > Engineering

Reply

 
Thread Tools Display Modes
     
     
  #61  
Old Posted Nov 23, 2011, 4:04 PM
scalziand's Avatar
scalziand scalziand is offline
Mortaaaaaaaaar!
 
Join Date: Aug 2007
Location: Naugatuck, CT/Worcester,MA
Posts: 2,828
LENR "Cold Fusion" nano-magnetism phenomenon details to be revealed December 7th in NYC

November 14, 2011 Chris Houts

Based upon evidence verified by our network of scientific leaders, as well as a definitive explanation of the “mystery” behind how and why LENR works; we are announcing the credibility and feasibility of Low Energy Nuclear Reaction, often incorrectly labeled ”Cold Fusion.”



Brian Ahern received his PhD in material science from MIT, holds 26 patents and was a senior scientist for 17 years in research and development at USAF Rome Lab at Hanscom Air Force Base. Ahern was the U.S. Air Force’s expert on nano-materials. Ahern has discovered the LENR phenomenon is occurring on the nanoscale and involves a formerly misunderstood and rarely explored attribute of nano-magnetism.

Apparently, energy localization at the nano-scale circumvents the 2nd Law of Thermodynamics. Nature evolved to take advantage of these energy exchange mechanisms available only at this size scale (which is why ordered structures can be created from chaos, such as after the big bang.) This phenomenon was identified in 1996 as Oscillons in relation to Chaos Theory, but has never been clearly understood until now.

Ahern states ” In 1995 we made a major and fundamental discovery regarding nano-material properties. This almost completely unknown to most technologists. All materials processed within certain tolerances experience very different vibrational modes than all other aggregations of matter. IT PROVIDES A CONCISE EXPLANATION FOR THE BIOENERGETICS OBSERVED IN ALL ASPECTS OF NATURE.”

Brian explained this to Akito Takahashi working to replicate the LENR experiments of Yashiaki Arata in early 2009 and he succeeded immediately. Ahern has been funded for 2.5 years to replicate Arata and then push on towards Piantelli. Ahern has also been guiding George Miley’s group at UIUC on this nanotechnology, and the group seems to be enjoying a great deal of success in the month on October.

It also appears that the phenomenon may account for and explains a persistent mystery regarding the unification of physics.

Ahern states “In the last 8 weeks I have been astounded by a superior nanotechnology that will capture the imagination of even the greatest foes of LENR. I believe all of LENR is just a new and unanticipated form of nanomagnetism.” Citi5′ Flash Summit titled Attention America: Clean Tech will fix the Economy will be integrating Ahern’s research, as well as providing a platform for leaders and innovators of LENR to present their findings. Please contact us at info@citi5.org with any questions regarding attending the event or speaker suggestions.

http://citi5.org/launch/?p=1826
Reply With Quote
     
     
  #62  
Old Posted Nov 23, 2011, 4:14 PM
scalziand's Avatar
scalziand scalziand is offline
Mortaaaaaaaaar!
 
Join Date: Aug 2007
Location: Naugatuck, CT/Worcester,MA
Posts: 2,828
The Chan Formula


Note the following apparatus:

· 10" X 10" X 10" soldered seam copper box, open at top.

· 4" Styrofoam insulation on sides and bottom. Styrofoam cover for top.

· 7 6" lengths of 1/4 " copper tube soldered to bottom, centered to provide platform.

· 4" diameter by 6" long glass pipe created by cutting glass bottle.

· #24 gauge winding around this and placement on stand completes the apparatus. The windings are connected to an RFG with a low range and pulse mode.

· The box is filled to 8 " with mineral oil. A thermal couple is placed in the oil outside the core. Outside, a small oil pump with 1/4 " copper tubes leading into the box circulates the oil A fan cooled radiator is attached in series to provide heat dissipation and an adjustable valve allows temperature control.

· The energy capsules which I place inside of the coil consist of 5 " lengths of 1/4 " copper tube with the bottom pressed and then spot welded closed.

Noting that excessive copper and iron surprise showed up in the Swedish analysis I stocked powders of both with varies properties.



To eliminate need for hydrogen gas I stocked a number of metal hydride powders. I also availed myself of nickel powders, nickel plated copper powders, hydrides of nickel and copper and Raney nickel.

Manipulations are all done is a glove box whose propane atmosphere is constantly swept by a bleed from a small barbecue rank.

· Using a typical mix of Ni, Ni-Cu, Fe, MgH2 powders, a 2 gram sample is placed in a capsule.

· The top is pinched shut with a vise and then spot welded to a tight seal.

A useful reference is http://xuzhounano.en.made-in-china.c...-28NP-HW-.html where nanomagnetic activation is noted.

Here is a brief from a vender's site:

"2. High efficiency electrode material, the nickel has small particle size, easy to disperse and with high specific surface, high catalytic activity and good in conductivity.

If with proper process, it can make the electrode with huge superficial area, greatly improve the efficiency of electric discharge, which can replace the platinum powder use as the fuel-cell catalyst and largely reduce the cost.

3. The nickel nanopowder has very strong electromagnetic wave absorption capability, which can use in the military field of stealth.

4. High-efficiency ignition dope, add the nickel nanopowder to the solid propellant of the rocket can greatly increase the heat and combustion efficiency of the fuel and improves the combustion stability.".

I have reached self sustained fusion at 200 C for days. If anyone duplicates my success, please communicate with me for possible cooperative venture. I have applied for a patent on this some time ago. I am proceeding to place a boiler is series with the oil line to power a small steam engine created from a compressed air engine kit using a basic gasoline engine.
Reply With Quote
     
     
  #63  
Old Posted Nov 30, 2011, 5:37 PM
scalziand's Avatar
scalziand scalziand is offline
Mortaaaaaaaaar!
 
Join Date: Aug 2007
Location: Naugatuck, CT/Worcester,MA
Posts: 2,828


FoFu-1’s fusion yield consistency improves six-fold

November 29, 2011 by Derek Shannon

FF-1’s repeatability improves six-fold, with fusion yield staying within 3%

FF-1 has taken a long step toward demonstrating the level of repeatable firing needed for a fusion generator. On November 2, FF-1 fired five shots in a row, under the same conditions, with fusion yield varying by only plus or minus 2.6% from an average of 0.9x1011 neutrons. While dense plasma focus (DPF) devices preceding FF-1 have had a reputation for large shot-to-shot variability, a fusion generator (as well as most other applications) requires repeatable functioning. In May 2011, LPP reported that our research team had succeeded in stabilizing FF-1’s output to within a range of plus or minus 15%. The latest, tighter stability of function represents a six-fold improvement over the May results and achieves approximately the range of reliability that would be required in a generator pulsing many times per second.

The greater repeatability, we believe, is due to our tighter control of asymmetries in the device, including the centering of the electrodes (see more below). But the axial field coil (AFC), a magnetic coil which imposes a small field along the axis, probably contributes as well. The coil’s field of only 2 gauss, just 6 times the earth’s magnetic field in the vertical direction, imparts spin to the plasma which is greatly amplified while the current sheath moves down the electrodes. As with a spinning bullet, the spin can stabilize the sheath, making the output more repeatable. The sequence of five highly similar shots ended when the team deliberately changed the axial field to 4 gauss. While this is suggestive of a positive effect, more data will be needed to unequivocally demonstrate the role of the AFC.



Automation of data collection allows more shots, faster progress

Changes to our data collection software have allowed us to reduce the time we take between shots, thus speeding our research progress. Until this month, it took several minutes to download the data from all 24 channels on our six oscilloscopes. This significantly extended the time it took us to prepare to fire the next shot. Thanks to work by our IT contractor, Ivana Karamitsos, our software was revised to reduce the data collection time to under a minute. With more shots per day, we’ll make faster progress. Coming soon—faster data analysis, too!


Latest FF-1 tweaking aims to eliminate small tilts

In LPP’s continuing effort to improve the symmetry of FF-1’s electrodes, we made modifications to the central o-ring and insulating Mylar sheets to eliminate a small tilt we had detected in the alignment of the electrodes. The alignment of the electrodes is critical in producing a symmetric current sheath, which in turn is needed to get the highest compression of the plasmoid where the fusion reactions occur. There is only a 15 mil (thousandths of an inch) clearance between the insulator and the cathode, or outer electrode, so this distance must be kept constant to within one mil around the whole circumference of the insulator. While previous efforts have accurately centered the insulator at its base, any slight tilt in the large steel plate holding the anode can create a misalignment when the insulator passes close to the cathode.

LPP’s team did detect such a tilt. The cause was a small error in the dimensions of a rubber o-ring that surrounds the anode and provides a vacuum seal to prevent air from entering the vacuum chamber. Because the ring was too thick, it did not compress enough under the weight of the upper steel plate (which is attached to the anode) to rest securely on the Mylar plastic insulating layers and the lower steel plate (which is attached to the cathode). Instead, the o-ring carried the main weight and allowed the steel to tilt slightly. A reduction in the o-ring thickness as well as adding more lead weights to increase the compression will cure this problem, and the solution was tested by assembling the electrodes, insulator, and plates on our work table. After a breakdown earlier in November, improvements are underway to protect the inner assembly to electrical breakdown at the 120 kV levels that we expect to reach during future shots. LPP’s team expects that the elimination of the tilt will improve symmetry and increase fusion yield.



http://www.lawrencevilleplasmaphysic...in-3&Itemid=90
Reply With Quote
     
     
  #64  
Old Posted Jan 16, 2012, 7:37 AM
ltsmotorsport's Avatar
ltsmotorsport ltsmotorsport is offline
Here we stAy
 
Join Date: Dec 2002
Location: The grid of course
Posts: 7,789
Quote:
One step closer to controlling nuclear fusion
January 13, 2012
By Nicolas Guérin

Using a heating system, physicists have succeeded for the first time in preventing the development of instabilities in an efficient alternative way relevant to a future nuclear fusion reactor. It’s an important step forward in the effort to build the future ITER reactor.

Scientists have achieved a milestone: they have managed to stop the growth of instabilities inside a nuclear fusion reactor. How? Here’s a look at this energy source, which despite being challenging to control, is nevertheless extremely promising.

http://www.physorg.com/news/2012-01-...fusion.html?=y
__________________
Yeah, I'm like an even less classy version of Tucker Max. - Snodrifter
Reply With Quote
     
     
  #65  
Old Posted Jan 16, 2012, 5:38 PM
scalziand's Avatar
scalziand scalziand is offline
Mortaaaaaaaaar!
 
Join Date: Aug 2007
Location: Naugatuck, CT/Worcester,MA
Posts: 2,828
Apparently NASA takes LENR very seriously.

http://technologygateway.nasa.gov/me...lenr/lenr.html
Reply With Quote
     
     
  #66  
Old Posted Feb 1, 2012, 12:07 AM
scalziand's Avatar
scalziand scalziand is offline
Mortaaaaaaaaar!
 
Join Date: Aug 2007
Location: Naugatuck, CT/Worcester,MA
Posts: 2,828
Quarterly 'update' from the Polywell boys.

http://www.recovery.gov/Transparency...419&qtr=2011Q4

During 4Q of 2011, EMC2 has modified the electron injectors to increase the plasma heating. The higher plasma density in WB-8 prompted the need for higher heating power. We plan to operate WB-8 in high beta regime with the modified electron injectors during 1Q of 2012.
Reply With Quote
     
     
  #67  
Old Posted Feb 2, 2012, 1:34 AM
scalziand's Avatar
scalziand scalziand is offline
Mortaaaaaaaaar!
 
Join Date: Aug 2007
Location: Naugatuck, CT/Worcester,MA
Posts: 2,828
Cold Fusion with over ten times energy gain was demonstrated at MIT

As part of the IAP Course on COLD FUSION at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dr. Mitchell Swartz, JET Energy, and Prof. Peter Hagelstein demonstrated cold fusion openly for scientists and engineers. The demonstration was a two day part of the detailed, yet overview, seven day course run by Prof. Hagelstein and Dr. Swartz, and followed the first open demonstrations of cold fusion at MIT in 2003. This JET Energy NANOR(TM) demonstrated a significant energy gain greater than 10, much larger than the previous open demonstration. This exhibition is also remarkable because it confirmed the role of the nanoengineered lattice in enabling the CF/LANR activity. It followed Prof. Hagelstein sharing his breakthrough explanatory theory of cold fusion during the first 5 days.

The IAP Short Course (7 days) on Cold Fusion and Lattice Assisted Nuclear Reactions has meticulously developed the salient point that skeptics of cold fusion were wrong, and that scientific theories do exist for understanding the difficult to achieve reactions. Here, on day 3, Prof. Hagelstein demonstrates experimental results proving the role of deuteron flux in PdD hydrides resulting in excess heat accompanied by commensurate de novo helium-4 production, and a visiting engineer from Canada makes a contributory point.
Reply With Quote
     
     
  #68  
Old Posted Mar 11, 2012, 10:06 PM
whiteford's Avatar
whiteford whiteford is offline
Registered User
 
Join Date: Sep 2010
Posts: 1,394
Quote:
Originally Posted by scalziand View Post
That would be Hutchison, not Hudgison.
indeed thanks for the correction.
Reply With Quote
     
     
  #69  
Old Posted Apr 24, 2012, 2:28 AM
M II A II R II K's Avatar
M II A II R II K M II A II R II K is offline
Registered User
 
Join Date: Aug 2002
Location: Toronto
Posts: 33,984
Scientists See Solution to Critical Barrier to Fusion


Apr. 23, 2012

Read More: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases...=Google+Reader

Quote:
.....

An in-depth analysis by scientists from the U.S. Department of Energy's Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) zeroed in on tiny, bubble-like islands that appear in the hot, charged gases -- or plasmas -- during experiments. These minute islands collect impurities that cool the plasma. And it is these islands, the scientists report in the April 20 issue of Physical Review Letters, that are at the root of a long-standing problem known as the "density limit" that can prevent fusion reactors from operating at maximum efficiency.

- "The big mystery is why adding more heating power to the plasma doesn't get you to higher density," said David A. Gates, a principal research physicist at PPPL and co-author of the proposed solution with Luis Delgado-Aparicio, a post-doctoral fellow at PPPL and a visiting scientist at MIT's Plasma Science Fusion Center. "This is critical because density is the key parameter in reaching fusion and people have been puzzling about this for 30 or 40 years." The scientists hit upon their theory in what Gates called "a 10-minute 'Aha!' moment." Working out equations on a whiteboard in Gates' office, the physicists focused on the islands and the impurities that drive away energy. The impurities stem from particles that the plasma kicks up from the tokamak wall. "When you hit this magical density limit, the islands grow and coalesce and the plasma ends up in a disruption," says Delgado-Aparacio.

- These islands actually inflict double damage, the scientists said. Besides cooling the plasma, the islands act as shields that block out added power. The balance tips when more power escapes from the islands than researchers can pump into the plasma through a process called ohmic heating -- the same process that heats a toaster when electricity passes through it. When the islands grow large enough, the electric current that helps to heat and confine the plasma collapses, allowing the plasma to fly apart. Gates and Delgado-Aparicio now hope to test their theory with experiments on a tokamak called Alcator C-Mod at MIT, and on the DIII-D tokamak at General Atomics in San Diego. Among other things, they intend to see if injecting power directly into the islands will lead to higher density. If so, that could help future tokamaks reach the extreme density and 100-million-degree temperatures that fusion requires.

.....
__________________
ASDFGHJK
Reply With Quote
     
     
  #70  
Old Posted Jul 13, 2012, 3:21 AM
scalziand's Avatar
scalziand scalziand is offline
Mortaaaaaaaaar!
 
Join Date: Aug 2007
Location: Naugatuck, CT/Worcester,MA
Posts: 2,828
DARPA has apparently confirmed cold fusion, or whatever you want to call it.

http://nextbigfuture.com/2012/07/dar...nanoscale.html

“FY 2011 Accomplishments:
- Continued quantification of material parameters that control degree of increase in excess heat generation and life expectancy of power cells in collaboration with the Italian Department of Energy. Established ability to extend active heat generation time from minutes to 2.5 days for pressure-activated power cells..”
Reply With Quote
     
     
  #71  
Old Posted Oct 17, 2012, 4:05 AM
M II A II R II K's Avatar
M II A II R II K M II A II R II K is offline
Registered User
 
Join Date: Aug 2002
Location: Toronto
Posts: 33,984
Clean, limitless fusion power could arrive sooner than expected


October 8, 2012

By Sebastian Anthony

Read More: http://www.extremetech.com/extreme/1...-than-expected

Quote:
Good news, denizens of Earth: If the findings from two premier research labs are to be believed, commercial nuclear fusion is feasible — and could arrive sooner than expected.

The first breakthrough comes from Sandia National Laboratories (the same engineers who brought us the fanless heatsink). At SNL, a research team has been working on a new way of creating fusion called magnetized liner inertial fusion (MagLIF). This approach is quite similar to the National Ignition Facility at the LLNL in California, where they fuse deuterium and tritium (hydrogen isotopes) by crushing and heating the fuel with 500 trillion watts of laser power. Instead of lasers, MagLIF uses a massive magnetic pulse (26 million amps), created by Sandia’s Z Machine (a huge X-ray generator), to crush a small cylinder containing the hydrogen fuel. Through various optimizations, the researchers discovered a MagLIF setup that almost breaks even (i.e. it almost produces more thermal energy than the electrical energy required to begin the fusion reaction).

Probably more significant is news from the Joint European Torus (JET), a magnetic confinement fusion facility in the UK. JET is very similar to the ITER nuclear fusion reactor, an international project which is being built in the south of France. Whereas NIF and Sandia create an instantaneous fusion reaction using heat and pressure, ITER and JET confine the fusing plasma for a much longer duration using strong magnetic fields, and are thus more inclined towards the steady production of electricity. JET’s breakthrough was the installation of a new beryllium-lined wall and tungsten floor inside the tokamak — the doughnut-shaped inner vessel that confines 11-million-degrees-Celsius plasma.

.....



__________________
ASDFGHJK
Reply With Quote
     
     
  #72  
Old Posted Oct 24, 2012, 1:54 AM
M II A II R II K's Avatar
M II A II R II K M II A II R II K is offline
Registered User
 
Join Date: Aug 2002
Location: Toronto
Posts: 33,984
Big Idea Bring Back the "Cold Fusion" Dream

Read More: http://discovermagazine.com/2012/nov...er+Magazine%29

Quote:
In 1989 Stanley Pons and Martin Fleischmann made a sensational claim that would have changed the world—had it been true. They said they had achieved nuclear fusion at room temperature using a simple tabletop device, thus creating a revolutionary clean energy source they called “cold fusion.” Unfortunately for the University of Utah chemists, multiple attempts to replicate their experiment over ensuing months failed. Cold fusion was considered debunked, and it has lived beyond the fringe of mainstream science ever since.

Yet quietly, more than 20 years later, two of the world’s largest mainstream scientific institutions—NASA and the European physics research center CERN—have revisited the controversial energy-generating experiment. A growing cadre of scientists now suspect that Pons and Fleischmann’s observations were the result not of fusion but of more plausible physical processes. Some are even cautiously optimistic that those processes could be exploited to generate abundant amounts of clean energy. “There’s enough evidence that says we need to look at this,” says Joseph Zawodny, a physicist at NASA’s Langley Research Center in Virginia.

.....



__________________
ASDFGHJK
Reply With Quote
     
     
  #73  
Old Posted Mar 13, 2013, 2:16 AM
scalziand's Avatar
scalziand scalziand is offline
Mortaaaaaaaaar!
 
Join Date: Aug 2007
Location: Naugatuck, CT/Worcester,MA
Posts: 2,828
http://www.lawrencevilleplasmaphysic...11,%202013.pdf

FF-1 ion beam output jumps four-fold to a record 380-GW

The ion beam produced by a plasma focus device will be the primary means of getting electric
power out of the device. On February 28, while firing Focus Fusion-1 (FF-1), LPP’s
experimental plasma focus device, the team observed a record 380 GW peak power in the ion
beam. The previous most powerful beam observed had a peak power of 93 GW, so the new beam
is a four-fold improvement. In addition, this was the first beam observed that, at least in part,
went all the way down the meter-long drift tube that is attached to the underside of the FF-1
vacuum chamber. It was also the first beam that equaled or exceeded our theoretical predictions.
Both the higher peak power and the beam’s more vertical direction are signs of increasing
symmetry of the compression that forms the plasmoid, a key goal of LPP’s current efforts.

To give some context for this large power output, the peak input power to FF-1 device from its
capacitor bank is currently around 53 GW while the total average electric power used in the
United States is 440GW. Indeed, the beam was probably considerably more powerful than the
figure we measured, as LPP’s Chief Scientist Eric Lerner calculated that about half the beam
spread out beyond the 1-cm wide entrance hole to the drift tube. We believe this is the most
powerful beam ever measured from a plasma focus device, although we will have to search the
literature more thoroughly to make that claim with certainty.

Of course, the beam only lasted 5-ns, so it and the equally powerful electron beam emitted in the
opposite direct carried only about 4 kJ of energy, about 1/15th of the total energy fed into the
electrodes during the much longer 2-microsecond rise-time of the current from the capacitors. To
get more energy out of the beam than is put in will require much higher fusion yield than is
presently obtained in FF-1.
Reply With Quote
     
     
  #74  
Old Posted May 23, 2013, 6:49 PM
scalziand's Avatar
scalziand scalziand is offline
Mortaaaaaaaaar!
 
Join Date: Aug 2007
Location: Naugatuck, CT/Worcester,MA
Posts: 2,828
http://nextbigfuture.com/2013/05/gen...track-for.html

General Fusion on track for Demonstration of Net Gain Equivalent Plasma Compression this year


General Fusion is trying to make affordable fusion power a reality.
• Founded in 2002, based in Vancouver, Canada
• Plan to demonstrate proof of physics DD equivalent “net gain” in 2013
• Plan to demonstrate the first fusion system capable of “net gain” 3 years after proof
• Validated by leading experts in fusion and industrial engineering
• Industrial and institutional partners
• $42.5M in venture capital, $6.3M in government support

General Fusion intends to build a three-meter-diameter steel sphere filled with spinning molten lead and lithium. Super-heated plasma would be injected into the vortex and then the outside of the sphere would be hit with 200 computer-synchronized pistons travelling 100 meters per second (200 mph) The resulting shock waves would compress the plasma and spark a fusion reaction for a few microseconds.













Ride it, cowboy.


Reply With Quote
     
     
  #75  
Old Posted Jun 20, 2013, 6:11 PM
scalziand's Avatar
scalziand scalziand is offline
Mortaaaaaaaaar!
 
Join Date: Aug 2007
Location: Naugatuck, CT/Worcester,MA
Posts: 2,828
LPP Focus Fusion Report, May 14, 2013
Posted by Administrator3 / Trackback / May 14, 2013 / in News

Summary:
  • Plasmoid density triples, fusion energy rises with purer plasma
  • But not pure enough—LPP tracks down what disrupted the filaments
  • LPP has new paper for Spain conference
  • US Department of Commerce finds all in order with LPP-Iran Scientific “Fusion for Peace” Collaboration
  • LPP has rendezvous with Chu as Congress sets eye on ITER costs

Plasmoid density triples, fusion energy rises with purer plasma

The density of the fusion-producing plasmoid is the key factor that must be increased for LPP to demonstrate the scientific feasibility of net energy production from Focus Fusion—net energy meaning more energy out than is lost in making that energy. In the past month’s experiments, LPP’s research team has demonstrated the near-tripling of ion density in the plasmoid to 8x1019 ions/cc, or 0.27 mg/cc. At the same time, fusion energy output has moved up, with the best three-shot average increasing 50% to one sixth of a joule of energy. These results are not flukes, but part of an upward trend in density and energy since late February (see Figure 1), as the team reduced leaks in the vacuum chamber by over a hundred-fold. This reduced impurities entering the plasma from insulating oxide layers on the electrodes, thus improving the compression of the plasma. In addition, at the end of March, LPP’s Derek Shannon refurbished the switches on FF-1, replacing worn plastic insulation, thus allowing the switches to fire in closer coordination.



The greater increase in density than fusion energy is expected, because as compression improves and the plasmoid gets smaller, its lifetime also decreases. So while density improves roughly as 1/r3, where r is radius, lifetime decreases proportional to r and energy output increases roughly as the product of the two, or 1/r2.

The higher density was determined by combining measurements of the total fusion energy and ion temperature derived from our neutron detectors, and measurements of plasmoid size from our ICCD-camera images. The LPP team has moved the camera to a new position, looking up close to the axis of the electrodes instead of side-on as previously (see next section). Our very first image from this direction (Figure 2) shows our smallest plasmoid yet observed with a core radius of only150 microns and core length of about 1.5 mm.

Figure 2. First ICCD image looking up at end of anode, taken 2 ns before pinch on shot 1, May 2nd,2013. The plasmoid core, foreshortened, is the bright thin thread (arrow) within the much larger bright blob. The dark circular region is the hole in the center of the anode and the black upper region is the boundary of the viewport.

More evidence of increasing density comes from the increase in compression rate. The faster the rate, the smaller and denser the plasmoid. This rate is measured by the maximum rate of change of the current. Since late February, this measure has also increased by about 50%, consistent with a one-third decrease in plasmoid radius and a tripling of plasmoid density. (See Figure 3.)

Figure 3. Compression rate in tera-Amps/second: the maximum rate of change of the current, which is a measure of how fast plamsoid compression occurs. The faster the compression, the smaller and thus denser the plamsoid. Density is expected to increase roughly as the cube of pinch depth. As in Figure 2, the last hundred shots are displayed.


Plasma not quite pure enough:
LPP tracking down what disrupted the filaments

While the yield and density improvements show we are moving in the right direction, they are still well below what the LPP team theoretically expects for our present peak current of 1.1 MA. Yield is low by a factor of 10 and density by a factor of nearly 100. If we can get yield up to our theoretical expectation of over 1 joule, our scaling calculations tell us that with higher current we can make it all the way to the 30,000 J that we need to demonstrate scientific feasibility.

We’ve long concluded that this gap between theory and results is caused by the “early beam phenomenon” which is itself a symptom of the current sheath splitting in two, feeding only half its power into the plasmoid (see next section for more on this). Our new ICCD images looking up the barrel of the electrodes gave us new clues, as we were able to image the current sheath earlier in the pulse. The biggest surprise was that we saw no narrow filaments in the sheath. The filaments—tiny whirlwinds of plasma only tens of microns in diameter—are the first step in plasma compression. Without them, the plasma sheath is much thicker—about 2mm—and turbulent. It is thus vulnerable to corrugation instabilities that split it up into two sheaths.

This only pushed the puzzle back further. We knew from the tracks left by the filaments on the cathode plate (Figure 4) that the filaments existed early in the pulse. So, we had a mystery: what disrupted the filaments?
There was a second clue. We found that the pulse length—the time from the start of the pinch until the sheath collapsed into the pinch—was 15% too long compared with simulations of this phase done by Dr. Sing Lee, one of the leaders in the plasma focus field.

Both the lack of filaments and the longer pulse length could be explained by turbulence caused by metal impurities. If heavy metals got into the filaments, they would drop the viscosity of the plasma, allowing turbulence to disrupt the filaments. The same turbulence would dissipate energy, slowing down the sheath and making the pulse time too long.

So with oxidation way down and the leaks fixed, where were these metal impurities coming from? We had to take the electrodes apart to find out, and then analyze the dark deposits we found with an x-ray spectrometer (provided by local company NJ Plating). That pointed to the likely culprit: tiny amounts of silver and copper were being vaporized by micro-arcing at the base of the cathode rods, where silver-coated copper washers were located. While the amount vaporized was tiny—about 0.2 milligram per shot—the current sheath only has a mass of 2 milligrams, and we calculate disruption can occur with even 60 micrograms contamination.

In the next shot series, we will replace the washers with indium wire which has worked elsewhere on our electrodes to entirely eliminate even the tiniest arcing. We will also silver-plate the cathode rods as we have done with the anode. Over the longer run, we are looking at ways to have a single-piece cathode made out of tungsten or tungsten-copper in order to eliminate the rod-plate joint altogether. These steps should get rid of the filament disruption for good, enabling results to catch up with theory.

Figure 4. Disruption of the filaments. The cathode plate (right) at 7.5” in diameter is shown for context below, with rods, insulator, and anode in a, and alone with close-close up area outlined in b. In c, the close-up of the cathode plate runs from the tungsten teeth at right to a copper rod at left. Bright blue marks trace the paths of filaments from 60 shots, showing that the filaments at this point are only about 150 microns in radius. (The abrupt change in the blue marks’ brightness is due to a change in the tungsten surface.) Note how the filament paths spread out and eventually are disrupted as they approach the band of evaporated silver and copper near the rod.


LPP to present results at ICPIG conference in Spain
Some of LPP’s latest results will be presented at the International Conference on Phenomena in Ionized Gases, ICPIG, in Grenada, Spain, in July. A paper by the LPP research team has already been accepted for publication in the conference proceedings. The main results reported came from a recent analysis of ICCD images and other data, which showed that the current sheath had split into two sheaths prior to the pinch. The inner sheath could not produce a true pinch, due to the attraction of the outer sheath. Instead, it produced a jet-like blob at low density, as well as the early beam. Once the jet had moved out of the way, the outer sheet collapsed into the pinch. But since part of the current was still flowing through what had been the inner sheath, the main pinch was deprived of energy. If half the current was in each sheath, the yield would decrease by a factor of 16-32, explaining the lower yields with the early beam. Subsequent to the submission of this paper, the new research reported in the previous section of this report shows that the double sheath phenomenon is itself in all probability due to the destruction of the filaments, producing a thicker turbulent sheet much more vulnerable to the instabilities that produce the double sheath.

US Department of Commerce finds all in order with LPP-Iran Collaboration
Back on December 19th, 2012, the website “Forbidden Knowledge TV” published an imaginative report saying that LPP had developed fusion generators and was selling them for $70,000 apiece, including six to Iran. This misinformation was based on an earlier post by Gordon Duff at Veterans Today. We contacted both sites and were able to get corrections published. However, the “exports to Iran” misinformation caused the Department of Commerce and the FBI to investigate LPP’s cooperation agreement with the Plasma Physics Research Center in Iran. After LPP had given the Department of Commerce the correct information—that we were not exporting anything and that the cooperation agreement was for scientific publications exempt from sanctions, the agent involved told us that the matter was closed and settled to their satisfaction. LPP had previously ascertained that our scientific collaboration with colleagues in Iran was lawful, but it is always good to get official agreement. We look forward to further progress that decreases the chances of conflict by setting an example of peaceful cooperation while accelerating fusion research.

A rendezvous with Chu as Congress sets eye on ITER costs
Nobel laureate Stephen Chu, who stepped down as Secretary of Energy on April 22nd, was the keynote speaker at the Rutgers Energy Institute Symposium on May 7th. LPP’s Derek Shannon was able to chat at length about LPP’s achievements and challenges with Chu, although the secretary is prohibited from lobbying the department he formerly led. In May 2012, the current Energy Secretary, Ernie Moniz, was in attendance and received LPP’s latest papers while serving as a member of the President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology. LPP will update the Department of Energy and its Office of Fusion Sciences as our work progresses. In other fusion policy developments, a bipartisan quartet of senators—including Senator Ron Wyden, the focus of LPP’s call for fusion hearings—has requested that the General Accountability Office investigate the costs of the ITER tokamak. LPP hopes this will lead to greater support for a more diverse fusion program that includes both the tokamak and cheaper alternatives such as the plasma focus device.

http://www.lawrencevilleplasmaphysic...rt-may-14-2013
Reply With Quote
     
     
  #76  
Old Posted Jun 20, 2013, 10:33 PM
JDRCRASH's Avatar
JDRCRASH JDRCRASH is offline
Skyscraper Enthusiast
 
Join Date: Mar 2007
Location: San Gabriel Valley
Posts: 7,720
My goodness, this could start getting interesting in the next few years...
Reply With Quote
     
     
  #77  
Old Posted Jun 21, 2013, 8:50 PM
scalziand's Avatar
scalziand scalziand is offline
Mortaaaaaaaaar!
 
Join Date: Aug 2007
Location: Naugatuck, CT/Worcester,MA
Posts: 2,828
LPP has faced a lot of delays though, because their budget is so small. They originally expected to have shown proof of feasibility by now, but keep running into problems as they scale up. They spent a year trying to get the high power switches to reliably switch simultaneously. Then there were problems with the electrode alignment. Now they're trying to deal with some vacuum contamination problems.

I suppose it's similar to ITER, but with an order of magnitude different budget.
Reply With Quote
     
     
  #78  
Old Posted Jul 24, 2013, 7:29 PM
scalziand's Avatar
scalziand scalziand is offline
Mortaaaaaaaaar!
 
Join Date: Aug 2007
Location: Naugatuck, CT/Worcester,MA
Posts: 2,828
Cold fusion conference raises hopes of tabletop energy supply
SCIENCE 24 JULY 13 by DAVID HAMBLING

A conference on cold fusion at the University of Missouri continues until 26 July but nothing in it is likely to top a live demonstration of a device apparently producing kilowatts of heat on 23 July.

The flamboyant Andrea Rossi, who did much to revive public interest in this field, is conspicuous by his absence. Depending on your viewpoint, Rossi is either in line for a Nobel, or clown-in-chief of the cold fusion circus. Rossi prefers to let the market decide whether his E-Cat LENR generator is real; he received a major boost a few months back when a group of scientists concluded that his device really did produce over 1.5 kilowatts of excess heat. Since then Rossi has continued to make extravagant claims which cannot be verified; he says he is in partnership with a major US company who have started manufacturing their own E-Cats. In secret.

In the absence of Rossi's showmanship, the limelight belongs to his former business partners Defkalion Green technologies. Originally based in Greece, the company relocated to Vancouver in Canada with a "European R&D Centre" in Milan. Its generator is known as Hyperion; the standard version has nine modules in parallel producing 45 kilowatts total. It uses a few grams of powdered Nickel loaded with hydrogen gas. Defkalion claims its design is more stable than Rossi's with less risk of burn-out and power failure.

The demonstration was streamed live from Milan and watched online by about a thousand people. Few would have had the dedication to watch the entire nine-hour run, but the demonstration had to run long enough to prove that power was not coming from hidden batteries. Defkalion says it has run its reactor for up to six months in the past, but of course this has not been verified.

Mats Lewan acted as an independent observer of the Defkalion demonstration; he gives a full account on his blog. His view is that is appears to be genuine, producing 5.5 kilowatts of heat from a 2.7-kilowatt input. The input and output measurements all appear legitimate, but it's difficult to rule out concealed power wires or other clever forms of cheating. Lewan reports a claim by Defkalion's President, Alex Xanthoulis, that the company is collaborating with various international partners and "several of these companies are among the ten major companies in the world".

http://www.wired.co.uk/news/archive/...24/cold-fusion
Reply With Quote
     
     
  #79  
Old Posted Aug 1, 2013, 9:02 PM
scalziand's Avatar
scalziand scalziand is offline
Mortaaaaaaaaar!
 
Join Date: Aug 2007
Location: Naugatuck, CT/Worcester,MA
Posts: 2,828


Bubble Fusion Bubbles Up Again

By Mark Anderson
Posted 30 Jul 2013 | 19:50 GMT

The twelve-year-old "bubble fusion" saga reignited this week. Bubble fusion is the theory that nuclear fusion can be induced by rapidly collapsing bubbles in certain fluids. According to a new investigative report into Oak Ridge National Laboratory records, a highly publicized finding from 2002 that cast the controversial tabletop nuclear fusion experiment into doubt has itself been cast into doubt.

In fact, the reporter who examined the Oak Ridge document dump also found possible vindicating evidence that might have supported some of the embattled researchers—including lead author Rusi Taleyarkhan, now at Purdue University.

The report by Steven B. Krivit, publisher of New Energy Times finds, Talekyarkan's critics instead "said that they attempted their own experiment, but they didn't. They measured confirmatory data and later publicly said that they did not measure confirmatory data."


http://spectrum.ieee.org/tech-talk/e...bbles-up-again
Reply With Quote
     
     
  #80  
Old Posted Aug 7, 2013, 11:56 PM
scalziand's Avatar
scalziand scalziand is offline
Mortaaaaaaaaar!
 
Join Date: Aug 2007
Location: Naugatuck, CT/Worcester,MA
Posts: 2,828
Monolithic cathode planned to achieve plasma purity, higher density
Posted by Ivy / Trackback / August 07, 2013 / in News

Our latest round of experiments have convinced us that we will not be able to achieve the level of purity in the plasma we need for high density as long as we have joints between metal pieces in the cathode. Even with our very careful use of indium, sufficient contact resistance remains to cause significant vaporization of copper. So, despite the additional expense involved, we have decided to upgrade the cathode to a single monolithic piece of tungsten. This single piece will incorporate the cathode plate, the cathode rods and the underlying plate that attaches to the transmission plates that carry the current back to the capacitors. Thus the plate will only have a current connection outside the vacuum chamber. Both our experimental experience and materials theory indicates that vaporization from the tungsten itself should be minimized, and should fall well below the requirements we need. As far as we know, such monolithic construction is new for plasma focus device design.

However, a key consideration in the new cathode design is the brittleness of tungsten. Complex tungsten pieces like ours are formed by sintering—pressing together tungsten powder. This process does not give the tungsten its full strength and makes it vulnerable to sudden impacts. When the current flows through the electrode, the magnetic field will force the cathode outwards while it pinches the anode inwards. So we have to design the new cathode to withstand repetitive sudden stresses of this sort. On possible design involves replacing the rods with vanes that will be much more resistant to stresses, as shown here.

One of our student research associates this summer, Arya Ghaseminejad, is helping to prepare various design alternatives. These will be tested with CAD simulations with the help of LPP Board of Advisor member Rudy Fritsch. In this way we can ensure in advance that a new and more expensive monolithic cathode will also be long-lasting.

In order to measure in real time the amount of metal impurities in the plasma, we have purchased a digital UV spectrometer. From the ratios of the strengths of the bright lines produces by deuterium and by the metals we should be able to calculate the impurity levels for each shot. Our other student research associate, Kyle Lindhiemer, will be calibrating this spectrometer and we will probably be doing some shots with the old cathode to get a baseline comparison for our monolithic model.

- See more at: http://lawrencevilleplasmaphysics.co....YHCPCBLi.dpuf

Moving the goal posts closer: quantum “herding”
Posted by Ivy / Trackback / August 07, 2013 / in News

Increasing the density of the plasmoid is the “long pole” in our fusion tent—what we need to do to get to net energy production. We know we must increase density a long way from our current results. But now it seems the goal post have moved somewhat nearer. New theoretical calculations indicate that an effect that was left out of previous calculation increases the fusion reaction rate at high magnetic fields and thus requires only about one third the plasma density we previously calculated. This reduces the improvement needed in density from about 10,000-fold to about 3,000-fold.

The new calculation is again based on the quantum magnetic field effect that LPP Chief Scientist Eric Lerner first applied to the dense plasma focus in 2003. This effect causes ions—nuclei—moving in extremely strong magnetic fields to transfer energy slowly to electrons. Back in 2003, we realized that this would keep the electrons cooler, so they would radiate less x-ray energy, making it easier to achieve the extremely high temperature needed for hydrogen-boron fusion. But until recently, we overlooked another beneficial effect.

In a typical plasma at low magnetic field, the nuclei move almost randomly on the microscopic level, so when two nuclei collide only about one third of their energy is directed along the line that connects them. But recently, we realized that at very high magnetic fields, the situation is different. The nuclei in that case are moving almost exactly along the direction of the magnetic fields. So when they collide head-on, their full energy goes into the collision. Since the fusion reaction rate rise with energy, up to a very high energy, the more-head on collisions speed up the reactions for a given density. Equally, they allow the same reaction rate at a lower plasma density.

The reason this alignment along the magnetic field line happens at very high magnetic fields is because the quantum magnetic field effect operates only for ions moving in the same direction as the electrons—along the field lines. If the ions randomly move across the field lines, they lose energy much more rapidly to the electrons, forcing the ions back onto the field lines. Thus the electrons, through the quantum effect, act as sheep dogs, herding the ions in the magnetic field direction, where they collide with each other head-on.

The result is to allow us to reach net energy production with somewhat less demanding density conditions—making our path shorter and easier. We’ll be publishing a paper on this in the coming months.

- See more at: http://lawrencevilleplasmaphysics.co....7e8PLvcS.dpuf
Reply With Quote
     
     
This discussion thread continues

Use the page links to the lower-right to go to the next page for additional posts
   
Reply

Go Back   SkyscraperPage Forum > Discussion Forums > Engineering
Forum Jump


Thread Tools
Display Modes

Forum Jump


All times are GMT. The time now is 8:11 AM.

     

Powered by vBulletin® Version 3.8.7
Copyright ©2000 - 2014, vBulletin Solutions, Inc.