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Old Posted Feb 19, 2010, 9:43 PM
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My anti seismic systems




My name is Yiannis Lymperis I was born in Athens Greece the time of 19-7-1958. When I finished the primary school in the age of eleven years old , I started work with my father in the site of building construction in Athens of Greece, and at the same time I was studying at school in the afternoon as a machinist and learn the mechanical design. Because I didn`t like to work as a machinist when I finished this school I started studying in an other school as a supervisor of constructions works. There I was learning the architect design during in the afternoon school, and working in the morning at the same time in buildings with my father ( who was a building contractor )as a brick-layer and as a carpenter for concrete works. Then I been to the army . And there I was working as a brick-layer. When I finished the army I been to England living there for four years and working as a brick-layer ( a different way of building from the buildings of Greece), around Midlands. When I left England and return back to Greece I started to be a contractor building houses on the island of IOS in Greece. Since then I live and work on the island of IOS. In my country I am a patentee already for my first invention which with the title ‘’TIE ROD FOR STRUCTURAL PROJECTS’’. For this invention my international application number has already been registered by the International Bureau Patent Cooperation Treaty. This invention ensures protection of structures from wind (hurricane damage) and earthquake, far more than the existing building methods. I am already in the national place for registering my second invention which has the title ‘’HYDRAULIC TIE FOR CONSTRUCTION’’ which is actually expensive but more effective on soft -unstable ground compared to my first invention which is more suitable for firm ground.

video of invention http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KPaNZcHBKRI

site of invention http://www.antiseismic-systems.com/i...emid=5&lang=en

Last edited by seismic; Mar 15, 2010 at 2:25 PM.
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Old Posted Feb 19, 2010, 9:48 PM
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HYDRAULIC TIE ROD FOR CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS


The present invention relates to a hydraulic tie rod for construction projects ensuring the protection of the construction structures against damage caused by earthquakes and hurricanes.

Background of the invention
The prior art scientific endeavours have focused on the anti-seismic and anti-wind protection of construction works. To deal with these natural phenomena successfully, efforts have mainly focused on improving the ground, the construction materials as well as on improving the German and the American static regulations. All these improvements produced good results, however, increased significantly the construction costs as regards the use of cement and steel and did not eliminate currently existing problems. There are still construction structures sustaining damage and losses, or even destroyed, by earthquakes and hurricanes and all that despite the improvements made. It is therefore necessary to redefine how the earthquake and wind forces are exerted onto the building structures and to re-examine whether the existing construction materials work together as expected for there must be some mistake made somewhere contributing to damage and destruction. To start with, regardless of how strong a building structure is, it will collapse if the ground on which it rests is unstable. To this date, ground improvement is achieved by ground compacting using end-bearing piles and friction piles or the vibration technique in order to prevent its fluidization during an earthquake. Considering that this kind of ground improvement which moreover requires soil sampling prior to its compaction is very expensive, it is not carried out in minor construction works and therefore such works are left exposed to serious risk should the ground subside. There is therefore a need to devise a mechanism that prevents a building structure from sliding on either soft soil or rocky ground during an earthquake. Another issue to be considered is whether the German or the American static regulations are adequate not so much as regards the strength of materials - the mechanical strength of materials is well known - but as regards the additional forces that are being generated during an earthquake, forces unknown in the prior art and once these additional forces are identified, an appropriate mechanism can be worked out to eliminate them and prevent damage to the structure. Figure 3 presents an analysis of the known static mechanics forces wherein a tensile force (42) is generated by two forces acting along the same axis but in opposite directions. It is a known fact that concrete (43) does not stand up to tensile forces and fractures. Steel (44) however stands up well to tensile forces and for this reason it is used together with concrete in appropriate locations to help concrete withstand the tensile forces generated. Compression (45) is another force generated when two forces are acting along the same axis but in opposite directions. Concrete (43) exhibits nearly the same behaviour as steel (44) in compressive loads. Shear force (46) is another force which occurs when two forces are applied on parallel axes but in opposite directions. Τhis force is exerted between steel (44) and concrete (43) at their point of contact. Buckling forces (48) occur when opposite forces are acting along the same axis but the distance (height) of the material on which they are applied is six times greater than the smallest dimension of its base. When such forces are exerted, the material tends to buckle like α razor blade (49) instead of taking the shape of a barrel (43) as in compression. Finally, there is the torsional force (50), which is generated when materials are subjected to twisting stress.

We will now consider the way these types of forces analysed above act on the building structure during an earthquake or under exceptionally high wind conditions. In situations involving an earthquake or very high winds (hurricanes), lateral forces are generated (see Figure 4 (40)). The building frame column (34) sways left and right as a result of the oscillations produced by the earthquake. During the swaying motion of the column, as seen in Figure 4, when the column tilts left, tension forces are generated (42) on its right side and compressive forces (45) on its left side. It is for this reason that steel is laid externally to "absorb" tensional forces from both sides alternately. When the column tilts to the right, the exact opposite occurs to what was just previously described and goes on throughout the duration of an earthquake. At this point, though, we are called to answer the question why columns break at point (55) although our static calculations on these forces are correct, the answer is simple. We know that steel withstands tensile stress (42) and our calculations are carried out on the basis of that knowledge. We do not, however, take into account the rest of the forces being generated. The first of these unknown forces, not taken into account usually, is that of buckling (48) generated in both concrete and steel and none of these materials can withstand buckling effectively. When column (34) tilts, the concrete in the column produces a steel displacing force (forcing steel to bend over backwards, so to speak) at point (60) and up to point (59). This happens because concrete that's on the inner side of the steel (44) withstands the compressive force generated between the two materials and this leads to an outward displacement of steel tending to push it out of the column. This being the case, steel cannot carry out the task of standing up to tension, this being the reason it was originally placed in the column. Another omission, that is not statically calculated, will now be shown using a simple illustration. If we take a candle (Figure 3 (52)) and break it near its base (53) we notice that its candlewick (51) will come out the bottom part of the candle, which provides less resistance in comparison to the top part of the candle, which is longer. This happens because the tensile force (42) generated on the candlewick (51) during breaking will create a shear force between the candle and the candlewick, which [shear force] is smaller in the bottom part of the candle compared to the other opposite shear force generated in the top part of the candle and this is because whenever tension occurs, there will always be shearing in response. This is exactly what happens to column (34) in Figure 4. Steel section (44) from point (58) to point (60) is less in length than steel section (44) from point (57) to point (59), thus concrete resistance to shear (46) in section from (58) to (60) is lower resulting in the steel being pushed out of the concrete in that section and leading to the collapse of the structure. Nearly always in building structures which collapse during an earthquake, column fracture occurs approximately at the same height as shown in Figure 4 with the steel being pushed out – not fractured, in other words, while steel can withstand much greater tensional forces, these forces are cancelled out due to concrete failure to resist the shear forces generated in the column section from point (58) to point (60). It follows from the foregoing description that a new method of laying steel within the column is required that would only allow the generation of shear forces (42) that steel (44) can withstand and compression forces (45) that concrete (43) can withstand. In other words, reinforcement should be laid in a way that prevents the generation of shear forces (46), between steel and concrete, which concrete cannot withstand.

All building load-bearing elements are constructed in a vertical and horizontal and rarely in a slanting manner, i.e. vertical columns, monolithic horizontal slabs, trusses, which collapse because, in columns (34), their vertical axis bends beyond the fracture point as stated earlier. Trusses collapse due to the buckling of their horizontal axis at the points of their contact with the columns owing to the wavy motion that, during an earthquake, is transmitted through the ground and which turns individual column bases and the columns themselves into column fracturing pistons. Trusses will also collapse due to the compressive (45), tensional (42), shear (46) and torsional forces exerted at the points of their support as a result of the "left and right" swaying of the building’s framework caused by an earthquake or very high winds.

Brief description of the invention
The principal object of the hydraulic tie rod for construction projects of the present invention as well as of the method for constructing building structures utilizing the hydraulic tie rod of the present invention is to minimise the aforesaid problems associated with the safety of construction structures in the event of natural phenomena such as earthquakes, hurricanes and very high lateral winds. According to the present invention, this can be achieved by a continuous pre-stressing (pulling) of both the building structure towards the ground and of the ground towards the structure, making these two parts one body like a sandwich. Said pre-stressing is applied by means of the mechanism of the hydraulic tie rod for construction projects. Said mechanism comprises a steel cable crossing freely in the centre the structure's vertical
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Old Posted Feb 19, 2010, 9:50 PM
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support elements and also the length of a drilling beneath them. Said steel cable's lower end is tied to an anchor-type mechanism that is embedded into the walls of the drilling to prevent it from being uplifted. Said steel cable's top end is tied to a hydraulic pulling mechanism, exerting a continuous uplifting force. The pulling force applied to the steel cable by means of the hydraulic mechanism and the reaction to such pulling from the fixed anchor at the other end of it generate the desired compression in the construction project.

Detailed description of the invention
There follows a detailed description of the present invention with reference to the accompanying drawings wherein:
Figure 1 is a three dimensional representation of the present invention's device of a hydraulic tie rod for construction projects.
Figure 2 is a three dimensional representation of a building framework with hydraulic tie rods for construction projects fitted to the framework's vertical support points and also in the drillings beneath them.
Figure 3 shows the forces which are calculated in the static design of construction structures and it also provides an illustration with a candle.
Figure 4 shows the pathogenesis of a building framework column as well as an analysis of the forces acting destructively on the aggregates.
Figure 5 shows a building framework column with its base as well as the proposed structure in order to avoid said pathogenesis problems in case of an earthquake.
Figure 6 shows the proposed holding hoop for the steel cable-passage pipes and the steel-passage pipes inside the columns.
Figure 7 shows a house built without framework as well as the locations for installing the hydraulic tie rods.
Figure 8 shows a suitably configured steel framework for encasing old structures made of timber or other materials and the retrofitting of hydraulic tie rods on them.
Figure 9 shows a water dam as well as the method of installing hydraulic tie rods on it.
Figure 10 shows sections of a floating underwater road as well as the usefulness of fitting hydraulic tie rods to it.

With reference to Figure 1, the hydraulic tie rod (108) comprises two main components, namely, the pressure chamber (1) and the anchor (17), which are connected by a steel cable (2). The pressure chamber (1) comprises an integrated pressure chamber sleeve (8). Inside said sleeve, there is a pressure chamber piston (7) which slides up and down, just like a car engine piston, and is leak-tight to prevent the escape of pressure chamber air (or other fluid) into the internal ring of the pressure chamber sleeve (8). On the inside of said pressure chamber (1), in the centre of it, there is a welded pressure-tight steel cable carrying pipe (11); said steel cable (2) travels through said pipe while the inner part of the hole opening (109) of the pressure chamber piston (7) slides snugly on the external surface of said pipe. A piston terminal ring (6) is integrally mounted (as if one body) on the pressure chamber piston (7) and has two piston safety wire brackets (5) holding in their holes the safety wires (3), said wire brackets being held at the other end by sleeve safety wire brackets (4). Said piston terminal ring has a hole opening (109) through which said steel cable (2) comes out and is then fastened on the piston terminal ring (6) by a cable-fastening cone-shaped wedge (14). Said pressure chamber (1) has a pressure safety valve (9) that opens to release excess pressure from pressure chamber (1). It has also a hole opening with internal threading (10) for the supply of air (or other fluid) through a solenoid connection to the central automated pressure air (or other fluid) replenishment system. It follows, of course, that pressure chamber (1) is hollow internally to be filled with pressure air (or other fluid). The chamber piston (7) is solid and has an internal hole opening (109) in its centre. The steel cable (2) fastened to the terminal ring of the pressure chamber piston (7) once it passes through: (a) the opening of the steel cable receiving pipe (11) in the pressure chamber (7), (b) the steel cable passage pipe (Figure 2 66)), (c) the opening of the metal resistance pipe (Figure 2 (15)) and (d) the anchor sleeve (25), terminates and is fixed with cast metal inside the anchorage piston (26) which becomes a solid unit with the steel cable (2), which bears a knot (Figure 1 (22)) at the lower end of it for improved anchorage inside the anchorage piston (26). The anchorage piston (26) slides up and down inside the inner opening of the anchor sleeve (25). The anchorage piston (26) has integrally mounted on it an anchorage piston terminal ring (21). The anchor sleeve (25) too has mounted on it an anchor sleeve terminal ring (20) and an anchor threading (16) for screwing the metal resistance pipe (15) on to it via a corresponding threading similar to that of said anchor sleeve. Moreover, the anchorage piston (26) has another ring on it called piston rod bearing ring (24), having built-in hoops with holes for connecting it to the rods (27) through connecting ring rod rotary pins (28). The other end of the rod is connected to side blades (18), which also have hoops with holes connected to the anchor rods (27) through connecting side blade rod rotary pins (29). The anchor sleeve, too, has a sleeve rod ring (23), which has hoops with holes so that it can be connected through rods (27) and connecting rotary pins (28) to the side blades (18) embossed with indentations (19) for better anchorage into the drilling walls (31). A building framework can be seen in figure 2 with a lift and integrated hydraulic tie rods for construction projects in operation.

In another preferred embodiment, when the hydraulic tie rod for construction projects is to be used in particularly unstable ground sites, it may be provided with anchors bearing four cross-shaped blades (at 90° to each other) with the corresponding number of rods and connecting rotary pins.

We will now consider the framework construction sequence and the manner in which installation and operation of the hydraulic tie rods is carried out. Once the ground onto which the building structure will rest has been prepared, holes are dug into the ground at the points where the individual bases (36) will be placed. Drilling (31) is carried out inside the holes. The steel cable (2) is integrated onto anchor (17). One end of the steel cable (2) is passed into the hole opening of the metal resistance pipe (15) and said metal pipe (15) is threaded onto anchor (17) via anchor threading (16). Once joined into one body, the bottom part of the anchor (17), together with the resistance pipe (15), is lowered first into the drilling (31). On the top side of said resistance pipe (15) there is mounted a flat steel base to regulate its lowering to the desired level and provide better resistance and propping of the individual base (36) on the metal resistance pipe (15). Then, the steel cable (2) projecting from the metal base of said resistance pipe (15) is progressively fed into the pieces comprising the steel cable carrying pipe (66) while progressively adding more pieces until rooftop slab (33) is reached. When concrete laying of the building framework has been completed, the projecting steel cable (2) is placed in the bottom side of the pressure chamber (1) and passed through the hole opening of the steel cable carrying pipe (11) pushing the steel cable (2) until it goes through the hole opening (109) of the pressure chamber piston terminal ring (7). Once the steel cable (2) emerges from the top of the hole (109), it is guided through the opening of a cone-shaped cable anchoring wedge (14) and the base of pressure chamber (1) is placed over the steel cable carrying pipe (66), and then the steel cable (2) is attached on the pressure chamber piston (7) and pulled up using standard traction equipment. As the steel cable is pulled by the traction equipment the following occur: an upward pull is exerted at the distant end of the steel cable (2) mounted on the anchorage piston (26), the metal resistance pipe is held in place by the concrete foundation of column (36) as does the anchor sleeve (25) which is fastened to the resistance pipe (15) by means of the anchor threading (16) and as a result of the pulling action the anchorage piston (26) sinks into the hole opening of the anchor sleeve (25). During this movement of the anchorage piston (26), the piston rod bearing ring (24) is held in place by the anchorage piston terminal ring (21) and is lifted forcing the anchor rods (27), through the connecting rotary pins, to move vertically upwards; however, piston rods (27) are prevented from being lifted upwards because of the resistance offered by other sleeve rods (27) operating via the same mechanism in a reverse and opposite fashion providing resistance to the action of the piston rods and thus the joint connecting and rotary pin of the side blade rod (29) pushes the support of the side blades (18) towards the walls of the drilling (31) and as a consequence the side blades (18) push on the walls of the drilling (31), which, in turn, retreat slightly thus anchoring the entire system. To remove the traction equipment upon completion of the traction operation, the cone-shaped anchor wedge (14) is
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Old Posted Feb 19, 2010, 9:54 PM
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placed in the hole opening (109) of the piston terminal ring (6) and hammered down in order to get the steel cable (2) anchored. Then, once the commercial traction equipment is removed, the pressure chamber is set to the desired pressure level by connecting the internally threaded inlet (10) through a piping system to an automated air (or other fluid) pressure system, "electrical pump with controlled pressure chamber". This pressure (90) within the pressure chamber (1) is exerted in all directions i.e. forces the pressure chamber downwards and the pressure piston (7) upwards; however, because the pressure piston (7) is tied to the steel cable (2) through the cone-shaped wedge (14) it cannot rise but exerts a pulling force (42) on the steel cable (2) while the base of the pressure chamber (1) exerts compressive force (45) on the slab originating from the reaction created by the pressure (90) of the piston bottom (12) towards the bottom of the pressure chamber (1). Moreover, to absorb the vibrations a rubber insert (13) is placed between the pressure chamber (1) and the top slab (33). This compressive force of the hydraulic tie rod for construction projects is different from the compression generated by the weight of the floors. In a multi-storey building the weight of each floor is the same when all floors are of the same dimensions and is accumulated generating the compressive force. However, the oscillating motion of each floor during an earthquake is different, the higher the floor and the longer the duration of the earthquake is, the larger the amplitude of the oscillation, increasing gradually and causing the first, the middle and the top slabs to oscillate deforming their vertical axis into an S shape changing the relationship of the horizontal and the vertical axis of the building by 90° leading eventually to the collapse of the building.

In contrast, the compression generated artificially by the tie rod for construction projects (108) is an active compressive force without the oscillations that the slabs are subjected to and which are generated as a result of the inertia of the slabs to the lateral forces caused by an earthquake. This artificial compressive force exerted by the tie rod prevents buckling of the columns, unless the steel cable breaks, thus, giving us the possibility to utilise its full strength at 100%. In case the drilling walls (31) collapse due to ground fluidization on account of an earthquake, the steel cable (2) will remain under tension, while the anchor diameter (17) on the horizontal plane will increase providing compaction of the soil on the drilling walls (31). This is because of the continuous pressure the steel cable (2) is being subjected to by the air (or other fluid) pressure exerted on the pressure chamber piston (7) and the pressure chamber (1) forcing the anchor (17) to open and automatically improve the soil on the drilling walls (31). In the event of the soil subsiding under the base (36), the building framework will not tilt because its weight is "taken up" by the metal resistance pipe (15) and then transferred to the side walls of the drilling (31) through the upper rods (27) of the anchor (17) which are pyramidal in shape, and are linked to the lower rods (27), which are pulled by the rising motion of the steel cable (2), through connecting rotary pins (29), (28). Moreover, this mechanism generates only compression (45) and tension (42) forces on the concrete column and prevents the generation of shear forces (46), which the concrete cannot withstand (see example of Figure 4). Moreover, anti-vibration rubber inserts (Figure 2, (35)) are placed in order to absorb the vibrations generated by the vertical earthquake forces. These rubber inserts (35) are placed between the individual bases (36) and the continuous base (37) which is constructed in order to prevent ramming the trusses and the slab (33) caused by the up-down movement of the individual bases during the waveform motion of the ground generated by the earthquake. In this way, the continuous base (37) is converted into a rigid boat keel lifting the columns on the same horizontal axis of the continuous base (37), in other words, the horizontal axis of the continuous base does not change shape during the earthquake and there is no ramming by the columns. In conclusion, the greater the width of the columns the more effective the hydraulic tie rod for construction projects is.

In another especially preferred embodiment of the present invention, based on the above conclusion and on our attempt to achieve the greatest possible structural rigidity, four hydraulic tie rods (108) are placed at the four corners of a lift shaft (Figure 2, (32)) with sizable external side dimensions, as well as a separate individual base so that the resulting unit will be very rigid. Care is taken not to leave a joint-spacing (38) between the slab (33) and the lift (32) and between the continuous base (37) and the individual base of the lift (32). This combined structure exhibits the following behaviour during an earthquake: the rest of the framework is oscillating around the lift shaft touching on it at various points along the gap (38) just before the framework exceeds its fracture point and thus before it is subjected to fracture and collapse it touches on a rigid structure (lift shaft) or a cross-shaped rigid column and thus the vertical axis of the framework does not exceed its allowed fracture point and does not assume an S shape as a result of the inertia of the slabs mentioned above.

In yet another embodiment of the present invention, the hydraulic tie rod for construction projects may be used with reinforcement in the columns, particularly with pre-stressing which is usually applied to the trusses. This is a very innovative way of using the hydraulic tie rod of the present invention adding improved strength mainly to large structures wherein simply covering the external columns of the building structure may not be sufficient to give the structure full structural rigidity and protection. In order to achieve this and have a vertical pre-stressing of the steel, it must not be anchored within the concrete and for that reason the steel is guided (Figure 6, (44)) through pipes (65) which are fixed with a pipe holding hoop (64) comprising the central pipe (110) fastening, the steel passage pipes (72) fastening, and the pipe holding bars (73) bearing hole openings to allow the concrete to pass through (74). Pipes (65) and (66) are fastened into said fastening hole openings (72) and (110) once the steel (44) and the steel cable (2) have passed through the pipe and fastening hole openings. The same procedure is followed in fastening the remaining pipes one on top of the other. Figure 5 presents an illustration of a frame column (34) with an individual concrete base (36). It shows the method of installing hoops (64), tie rod-cable passage pipe (66), steel passage pipes (65), and metal plates (62) as well as the method of threading with the base tightening screw (70) and the tightening screw (69) for joining and extending the steel, it also shows steel cable (2) and steel reinforcement (44). There follows a description for the placement and the construction of column (34). Once the drilling (31) has been carried out, the anchor (17) is screwed on the metal resistance pipe (15) provided the steel cable (2) has been guided through its hole opening. The anchor is lowered inside the drilling (31) and then the metal base plate (62) is placed provided the steel cable (2) has been guided first through its central hole opening. Then we fasten all steel carrying pipes (65), as well as the main steel cable carrying pipe of the tie rod (66), to the metal plate (63) hole openings, provided the steel reinforcement (44) and the tie rod steel cable (2) have passed first through their hole (67) and then screwing steel (44) using tightening screws (70) on the bottom part of the metal plate (62) to prevent it from rising upwards. These pipes are held inside a partially finished formwork of the column by means of hoops (64) and when the pipes (65) and the steel (44) reach beyond the level of the slab, the column formwork is completed and the concrete is poured into the column formwork (34). When the concrete sets the pipes projecting from the slab are cut and metal plate (62) is placed on the projecting steel (44) with threading (68) taking care that the steel (44) and steel cable (2) get through the hole openings of the plate (63). The tightening and steel joining/extending screw (69) is then screwed to the steel (44) threading (68) on its internal half threading (71), while the extension of the other steel is screwed on the other half internal threading of screw (69). Tensional forces on steel (44) and compressive forces on column (34) are generated during the fastening of the tightening screw (69) on the metal plate (62). This way, the required additional and desirable result of column compression is obtained, thus preventing the generation of shearing forces when the classical reinforcement method is utilized, i.e. pre-stressed concrete is produced in the framework column (34) by means of both the steel and the steel cable of the tie rod.

Based on the foregoing description, the advantages of using the hydraulic tie rod for construction projects can be listed as follows:
1) The structure's centre of gravity is shifted and is now located into the ground, making the construction structurally rigid. This is achieved by means of tightening the structure to the ground thereby forcing it to act as an integral
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Old Posted Feb 19, 2010, 9:55 PM
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body with the ground and not in isolation in which case it becomes vulnerable to lateral, destructive for the columns forces.
2) Permanent active compressive forces are developed, remaining constant even during an earthquake, exceeding the conventional tensional and shearing forces developing and prevailing during an earthquake following the current methods of concrete reinforcement in the columns, compressive forces which can be taken up by concrete to 100%.
3) Savings in terms of steel and concrete materials used, deriving from the fact that either the steel or the steel cable can be 100% effective to tensional forces considering that the hydraulic tie rod (108) does not offset the working tensional traction of steel or steel cable (2), which, in the case of passive steel and concrete reinforcement, is offset due to the failure of concrete to withstand the shearing forces developed between concrete (43) and the embossed part of steel (44).
4) The structure is prevented from being shifted because it is tied to the ground.
5) Structure sliding as a result of soil fluidization is eliminated. This is because of the shape of the anchor (17) and the "triangular pyramidal" bar arrangement pattern (27), combined with the continuous active compressive force exerted by the hydraulic tie rod and the resistance pipe (15).
6) The destructive forces applied on the structure during an earthquake are effectively checked by installing on the framework of Figure 2 effective systems for distributing the forces evenly, such as individual bases (36), continuous base (37), vibration reducing rubber inserts (35) and a single elevator (32) equipped with four hydraulic tie rods for construction projects.
7) The strength of the trusses at their point of support on the columns is increased due to the fact that at the point of support concrete is subjected to compressive forces and its resistance to shear forces generated between the concrete and the horizontal reinforcement of the trusses during an earthquake is increased.

The hydraulic tie rod for construction projects of the present invention can be used in various similar applications in the construction industry such as:
(a) Houses built employing methods not utilizing a concrete framework (Figure 7, (75)) wherein the strength of the brickwork (77) to the lateral forces generated during an earthquake is increased by inserting mortar joints, this increase in strength being due to the compressive forces (Figure 3, (45)) developed by means of the hydraulic tie rod for construction projects (108). In the case of houses built employing methods not utilizing a concrete framework, the hydraulic ties rods may be installed at the corners of the building and at intervals, around the structure perimeter, over the external brickwork, passing through the gap between the double brickwork, inside carrying pipes (66) terminating vertically into the drillings (31). The positioning of tie rod pressure chambers (1) on the top slab can be seen in Figure 7. Moreover, in such building structures a reinforced concrete bind-beam (76) and a continuous foundation (37) are constructed for better protection. In such building structures (75), equipped with hydraulic tie rods (108), built employing methods not utilizing a concrete framework, the cohesion, the strength and the adhesive ability of the joints (111) are greatly improved rendering these structures much more resistant to the lateral forces exerted during an earthquake, forces that ordinary brickwork cannot withstand.
(b) Old houses, timber houses and water dams in artificial lakes (Figure 9), achieving additionally better ground water-tightness through compaction and improved resistance to lake-water pressure. In these cases, the hydraulic tie rods for construction projects may be used either during the construction stage when included in the design or may be retrofitted to reinforce old structures against earthquakes, hurricanes and cyclones. As shown in Figure 8, reinforced steel corner pipes (81) are used, which are attached, using screws and wall plugs, on the wall or corner columns at the hole locations (82) on the external building corners (88) and then two pulling actions are applied. The first pulling action is carried out by tie rod (108) comprising a pressure chamber (1), steel cable (2), anchor (17), which is installed in the same fashion as in drilling (31). The second pulling action is horizontal and it is applied by two steel cables (84), one end thereof fixed on a steel ball (85) inserted into a modulated cross-section of the same shape (86) located onto the corner pipe (81) while the other end is fastened to a two-way traction screw (83); upon turning of said two-way traction screw (83) a horizontal traction is generated helping to unite the corner pipes (81) by applying a horizontal compression on the walls forcing them to become one with the structure (88). The joining of roof (88) with the corner pipes (81) is achieved by means of hole openings for the passage of steel cable (80), which are on the roof (90) steel framework, and are tightened together with the pressure chambers (1) through traction on steel cable (2).
(c) Floating underwater roads. In the prior art, bridges were constructed in order to get across from one coast to another, however, these are very costly as they require the construction of columns underwater and if the depth to which foundations will be laid is great, it is impossible to construct. Another way is by constructing underwater tunnels. This, too, is very costly due to boring at great depths. We therefore propose, as an alternative solution, the construction of an underwater floating road (Figure 10 (92)) operating like a submarine. This construction method has a number of advantages compared to the existing construction methods. First of all, it is cheap because it is built onshore; secondly, sea accidents will be avoided given that it is an underwater structure not posing any problems to navigation; thirdly, it may be constructed regardless of the sea bed depth and, fourthly, it is not affected by winds or earthquakes. Construction is carried out as follows: floating underwater roads are constructed onshore and then transported to the point of setting by floating cranes and barges and left on the sea surface (105) where they float by virtue of their sealed compartments, just like in submarines, i.e. sealed road surface (94) and sealed external chambers (95). When water inflow valve (100) is turned on, sea water flows into the sealed compartments and the floating underwater roads start sinking since their own weight is equated to that of the sea. When submerged to 20 m, the air inflow valve (102) and the water outflow valve (101) are turned on closing at the same time the water inflow valve (100). The air inflow valve (102) and the water outflow valve (101) are linked to the sea surface by means of two rubber pipes that terminate on a floating craft. Water is pumped out through valve (101) using a pump that is located at the other end of the rubber pipe, on the floating craft, while valve (102) supplies the air needed to maintain atmospheric pressure in the sealed chamber and enable the pumping system operation. Through the valve system, the floating underwater road can be raised or lowered balancing finally to the particular desired depth and then it is anchored using the hydraulic tie rod system (108) in shallow drillings (31) previously bored on the sea bed (106) by means of a small submarine. The procedure is repeated with the rest of the sections of the floating underwater road, joining them with bolts and nuts through the fastening holes on their frames. To improve the road surface water-tightness (93), a sealing rubber insert (97) is inserted between the frames of each section of the floating underwater road. When the joining and sealing procedure of all sections (92) of the floating underwater road is completed, all water is removed from the sealed compartments through valves (102) and (101) and the water pump located on the sea surface on a floating craft and then water is pumped away from the road surface (93). The lifting force generated on the floating underwater roads as a result of pumping out the water from the road surface (93) and the sealed compartments is the service load of the road (93). This lifting force of the floating underwater road towards sea surface (105) is counterbalanced by hydraulic tie rods (108) comprising pressure chamber (Figure 10, (1)), steel cable (2), anchor (17), lateral anchor blades (18), pressure chamber base (104) and steel cable guide (96). Still, inside the sealed compartments there is an extension of the sealed compartment water outflow pipe (107), which is an extension of the surface rubber tube and valve (101). The road is ready for use once the air equipment is installed and the road pavement is laid. Moreover, in order to protect the floating underwater road from sea currents, inclined side tie rods are installed at intervals on both sides of the floating underwater road. Said side ties rods are mounted on specially configured side mountings (103) on the floating underwater road.

All the aforementioned application examples for the hydraulic tie rod for construction projects of the present invention as well as any additional applications pertaining to the use of the hydraulic tie rod for construction projects of the present invention that may occur to those skilled in the art form part of the present invention and are deemed to be within the scope of protection thereof as set forth in the claims appended hereto.
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Old Posted Feb 26, 2010, 4:09 PM
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Hydraulic Tension Tie Summary
Hydraulic Tension Tie Summary

A Greek engineer developed Hydralic Tension Tie for construction work, which can be used to provide protection against the origination and development of failings in building structures, caused by earthquake and wind forces, and also to anchor any large structures, such as damns, houses, wind generators, bridges etc, into the ground (like a huge screw). This is achieved by a continuous prestressing (pulling) of both the structure towards the ground and of the ground towards the structure, making them into one body. The prestressing force is applied by means of a mechanical hydraulic tension tie for construction work.
The inventor is seeking

a) funding to register an international patent

b) a manufacturer for the invention

c) further tests

Funding for the above or any of those three.

Description of the offer or R&D result
It comprises of a hydraulic tension tie for construction work (Figure 1) and an effective anti-vibration system to distribute evenly damage-causing earthquake and wind forces. To understand the invention, just visualise how earthquake forces are being transmitted in a wavelike fashion and also how an earthquake sways a structure left and right and knocks it up and down, twisting the horizontal or vertical axis of the structure. So said engineer developed a continuous double base (Figure 2, (36)(37)) for the building frame, whose dimensions are equal to the basement area, with rubber in between said base (35) to prevent the wavy motion of the ground, caused by the earthquake, from turning each single base (36) (base for each column) into a column-fracturing ram. Understandably, column reinforcement is joined only to the upper continuous base, preferably by means of additional reinforcement and prestressing. Thus, the horizontal axis of the structure is kept rigid.
To prevent the vertical axis from being twisted by an earthquake as it moves the structure either left or right, said engineer developed a hydraulic tension tie for construction work (Figure 1), acting like a screw, and tied said tension tie (32) with the ground, preferably in the centre of the building frame and making it rigid through prestressing. Care is taken to leave a gap (38) between the slab and the tension tie and also between the continuous base (37) and the single base of the tension tie. This combined structure exhibits the following behaviour during an earthquake: the rest of the framework (34) sways around the tension tie well (32) touching on it at various points along the gap (38), which is lined with anti-vibration rubbers, just before the frame exceeds its fracture point; and so before breaking and collapsing, it touches on a rigid structure (tension tie); thus, besides preventing the vertical axis of the frame from exceeding its fracture point, it does not allow it to take an "S" shape due to the inactivity of the plates to the lateral forces generated during an earthquake.
Said hydraulic tension tie consists of a steel cable (Figure 2, (2)), passing freely through the four corners of a tension tie (figure 2, (17)(1)). Its lower end is tied by means of an anchor mechanism (figure 2, (17)) that is driven into the walls of a drill hole (22), preventing it from being uplifted. The steel cable's top end is tied to a hydraulic mechanism at the top of the tension tie, on all four corners of it. The pulling force applied to steel cable (2) by the hydraulic tension tie and the resistance to such pulling from the fixed anchor at the other end create the desired compression in tension tie. In structures with a small surface area, tension ties are placed on every frame column (figure 2, (34)) since the wavelike motion of the ground generated by an earthquake does not affect small structures; this because it moves up and down within the seismic wave range.

Innovative aspects
This is the first time that an anti-seismic patent connects the ground to the structure at appropriate points, independently (using an empty space, gap) of the rest of the structure, to develop flexible and rigid areas and by means of an anti-vibration slab to distribute evenly damage-causing earthquake and wind forces. There are areas where what's required is only rigidity and clamping/anchoring of structures such as dams, pylons, bridges, windmills, timber structures vulnerable to cyclones, and these requirements are satisfied by the tension tie for building structures.

This tension tie may be installed on existing structures as well as in structures under construction. It is as if we have just discovered a screw and are trying to work out how it can be used. The tension tie does exactly what a tree does: it has roots into the ground and flexible branches. On two sides of anti-seismic slabs, scaffolds are screwed together with the base to protect the tested structure from collapsing by the latter touching on them. The patent of this tension tie does just that, the only difference being that the (tension tie) scaffolding is screwed at the centre of the tested structure, providing a corresponding gap over and inside the ground.

Main advantages
a) During earthquakes and high winds, it keeps the horizontal and vertical axes of building structures in a straight line to prevent them from breaking and collapsing.

b) It increases the strength of concrete to tensile forces generated by an earthquake.

c) The steel cable uses % of its tensile strength, whereas in the normal, inactive reinforcement, the tensile ability of steel is cancelled out due to the inability of concrete to hold it and resist to the pulling force generated during an earthquake at its vertical elements.

d)It protects houses from hurricanes and cyclones

e) It provides a way of anchoring large structures into the ground (for various reasons) horizontally, vertically and under an angle.

f) If the walls of the drill hole collapse (31) as a result of liquefied ground after an earthquake, the steel cable (2) will remain tensed; on the contrary the anchor diameter (17) on the horizontal plane will increase and compact the soil on the walls of the drill hole (31). This happens because of the continuous pressure the steel cable (2) is being subjected to by the air (or other fluid) pressure exerted on the pressure chamber piston (7) and the pressure chamber (1) forcing the anchor (17) to open and automatically improve the soil on the walls of the drill hole (31). In the event of the soil subsiding under the foundation (36), the building frame will not buckle because its weight is "transferred" to the metal weight resistance pipe (15) and then transferred to the side walls of the drill hole (31) through the upper rods (27) of the anchor (17) which are having a pyramidal shape, and are linked to the lower rods (27), which are pulled by the uplifting of the steel cable (2) through connecting rotary pins (29), (28).
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Old Posted Feb 28, 2010, 7:50 AM
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Anti-seismic system placed in a shaft of a load-bearing structure

Anti-seismic system placed in a shaft of a load-bearing structure http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KPaNZcHBKRI
The main object of the hydraulic tie rod for construction projects of our invention along with its application method in the construction field for structural projects is to minimise the problems associated with the safety of structural projects such as buildings in the case of natural phenomena such as earthquakes, tornados and very powerful winds in general. According to the present invention, this can be achieved by a continuous pre-stressing (pulling) of both the roof of a large, geometrical part of the building structure which independent of the load-bearing structure towards the ground and of the ground towards the structure, making these two parts one body like a sandwich.

This pre-stressing force is applied by the mechanism of the hydraulic tie rod for construction projects, said mechanism mainly consisting of a steel cable penetrating free in the centre the vertical support elements of the structure, as well as the drilling length, beneath them. Said steel cable's lower end is tied to an anchor-type mechanism that is embedded into the banks (walls) of the drilling to prevent it from being uplifted. This embedding is attained due to the drilling hole being somewhat smaller than the exterior diameter of the completely opened anchor mechanism. Said steel cable's top end is also tied to a hydraulic pulling mechanism exerting a continuous uplifting force. This pulling mechanism comprises a piston, said piston reciprocating within a piston sleeve, connected to a pressure chamber beneath it. This pulling force, exerted on the top-end of the steel cable, by the hydraulic mechanism due to the hydraulic pressure originating from the rise of the chamber towards the piston, and the reaction in this pulling force originating from the embedded anchor at its other end generate the desirable compression in the construction project which in turn is tied to the ground and thus rendered resistant to the horizontal forces of an earthquake.

Utility analysis of the anti-seismic system titled: “Hydraulic Tie Rod for Construction Projects”.

Innovative step of the invention:
The forces of an earthquake (horizontal and vertical) start being transported from the bottom (base) towards the top (load-bearing structure). The horizontal and vertical (tectonic) transfer of the earthquake forces to the load-bearing structure is executed necessarily by the ground floor columns via the bases, and by means of the nodes, to the first floor and from then on from the first to the second, and so on.
.,
However the following paradox emerges:
The first (bottom), intermediate and top plates, when oscillating each have different amplitudes, and different directions. This is due to the inertia of each one of the multiple plates, as well as the additive elasticity of the columns of each floor, in different time-space, from the bottom to the top.

This delayed transfer of the acceleration forces results in the multiple plates moving in different lateral directions, (due to the inertia exhibited by each individual plate, in different time-space). Thus, additional torques are created, as well as shearing stresses form different directions in the column nodes, said columns due to their elasticity tending to deform along the vertical axis of the structure framework, in the form of an S.

CONCLUSION
For the above reasons, it is imperative to stop this irregular vertical axial development of additional torques and shearing stresses, originating from the horizontal forces developing on the plates which in most cases are in phase difference between them depending on the floor (height). This irregular development therefore creates additional problems in the column nodes.

The above problems to be resolved, i.e. of the shearing stresses and the torques generated in the nodes due to the horizontal (lateral) acceleration of an earthquake, and of the irregular displacement of the vertical axis of the load-bearing structure, are much accentuated in the nodes of the ground floor columns.

This is because of an additional problem occurring only in the nodes of the base with the columns. These nodes are not at all elastic so as to be able to transfer smoothly the violent shearing forces imposed on them by the base embedded to the ground.

The result is that these first load-transfer nodes developing by the dynamics of an earthquake, additionally bearing increased compressive components, and in combination with the acceleration of the earthquake, are the first to fail in the event of an earthquake. For these reasons, said nodes are placed under seismic insulation by creating a double “one-piece” base, and placing elastic supports in-between.

Another major problem to be solved is the great tendency of the load-bearing structure sides to rise alternately, said tendency originating from the increase in the structure oscillation. This tendency of the load-bearing structure to rise induces additional torque on all the nodes, forcing them to develop the tendency to change their existing, until now, angle in order to receive the additional bending loads of the load-bearing structure.

The proposed solution in order to address the above reported problems induced on the load-bearing structure by the earthquake is summarised in the following three points:
1) Create the conditions for controlled axial oscillation of the load-bearing structure.
2) Help the columns in transferring the horizontal forces of the earthquake, to the plates, not only from the bottom to the top in different time-spaces (phase difference from plate to plate depending on the height of placement), as occurs in the current conventional structures, but also laterally in relation to the vertical axis to all the plates simultaneously from a pre-stressed rigid structure (e.g. shaft).
3) Strengthen the nodes dimensionally along with additional reinforcement (or pre-stressing) in order to resist shearing.

The above is achieved by placing right at the centre of the load-bearing structure, architecturally exploitable in an effort to lower the cost, pre-stressed with the ground but independent from the load-bearing structure, rigid shaft, or dimensionally large cross-shaped column, or even a big room. The essential condition for the above rigid geometrical forms is for them to have axial vertical continuity, along the whole height of the building, and to be constructed entirely from reinforced pre-stressed with the ground concrete.

This pre-stressing applied by the hydraulic tie rod on the shaft and on the ground, is mainly imposed in order for these two parts to become one body, such that at the horizontal acceleration of the earthquake, the ground, the base, and the loft of the shaft are found in the same acceleration phase (in the same time-space as one body in the three dimensions).

The larger the geometric dimensions of the base (cross-section area), relative to the height, the larger is the resistance in the foot block, as well as in the emerging shearing.

An increase in the pre-stressing placed on the shaft, means a corresponding increase in its resistance to shearing, an increase in the compaction of the drilling banks, and consequently a better embedding of the anchor mechanism.

In order to achieve the independence of the rigid shaft from the load-bearing structure, we leave a gap between them. This gap is useful for the following reasons:
a) earthquake dynamics is not transferred from the shaft to the load-bearing structure,
b) the load-bearing structure remains independent in the seismic insulation offered to it by the double “one-piece” base-plate away from the oscillating shaft,
c) the load-bearing structure exhausts the mechanical resistance properties of the existing reinforcement, (so that it does not transfer large impact forces to the shaft), and just before it breaks, there occurs damping and retaining of the load-bearing structure on hydraulic systems placed in the lift gap, (rubber, or dampers),
d) to prevent the load-bearing structure from leaning on the lift shaft and transferring the additional compressive forces of its weight, thereby making the application of further pre-stressing forces on the shaft possible, thus rendering it more rigid.
e) to help the columns in transferring the earthquake forces, not only vertically, but also laterally in same time-space, by means of the pre-stressed rigid shaft and the dampers.

All this elasticity of the vertical axis of the load-bearing structure may be put under control in such a fashion as to achieve the smooth transfer of its vertical axis torques to the shaft.

When it is intended for the upper floors to oscillate more than the lower ones, the gap on the upper floors is made larger, setting a lower pressure on their hydraulics, in relation to the lower floors. Operating in such a manner, and in order to keep the bending action of the vertical axis under control to avoid the destructive transfer of torque towards the lower floors, the transfer of torque is computed statically during the plate impact from each and every floor onto the shaft and following that the proper gap between each floor plate and the rigid structure is computed and the proper hydraulic pressure is applied on the dampers.

In order to further strengthen the rigidity of the rigid structure (shaft), to decrease the oscillation amplitude, to prevent the overthrow, and to increase the shaft resistance to the shearing stress that is generated by the lateral impact of the plates due to their inertia, it is necessary to render the rigid structure “one-body” with the ground.

This can be achieved by means of the hydraulic tie rod for construction projects mechanism, applying pre-stressing between the loft (top floor) and the ground, making these two parts “one-body”.

CONCLUSION
It is wrong to let the columns transfer all alone the horizontal forces of an earthquake from the bottom to the top in the load-bearing structure, as is currently the case in the majority of the building construction methods.

The horizontal forces of an earthquake are not transferred effortlessly from the columns to the structure framework, this being due to the existence of other forces acting contrary to the direction of the earthquake horizontal forces, said forces originating from the inertia of the plates and resulting in the plates not responding readily to the direction of the earthquake horizontal forces. This opposition of forces on the horizontal axis of the building structure, creates shearing stresses, as well as non-uniform bending in the shape of an S (for the reasons reported above) deforming the vertical axis of the structure, with the known results.

It is at this point that the invention provides for the columns to transfer the earthquake forces uniformly and smoothly, not only vertically towards the top, but also horizontally to the floor plates, by means of the hydraulic tie rod, the pre-stressed shaft, and the hydraulic dampers placed in the gap.

Deductively in this way, the framework vertical axis maintains its initial form, not deforming into an S shape, due to the uniform movement of the mass of the multiple plates in the same time-space imposed on them by the pre-stressed shaft, relieving and helping this way the columns to transfer the destructive earthquake forces to the plates. That is to say, the invention creates controlled flexibility on the load-bearing structure vertical axis, helps the columns transfer laterally the earthquake forces to the plates, at the same time achieving the seismic insulation of the load-bearing structure horizontal axis (with double “one-piece” base-plates carrying elastic inserts between them). Moreover it also stops the tendency of the building to rise unilaterally, said tendency originating from the increase of the oscillation co-ordination, which oscillation co-ordination depends on the height of the building, the time duration of the earthquake as well as the wavelength of the earthquake and the amplitude of its oscillation.

Ground fluidization (subsidence) as well as the cracks, caused by an earthquake, are a major problem, which, however, in part has been resolved by the invention.

Stopping the video http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KPaNZcHBKRI at the point ( 55 sec. ) showing under the ground surface, a pipe can be observed starting from the anchor and reaching up to the bottom part of the base.

This is called resistance pipe, and is useful for the following reasons:
1) it constitutes the passage of the steel cable applying the pre-stressing,
2) should the ground recede under the base, then this resistance pipe undertakes the weight of the base and transfers it to the banks (side-walls) of the drilling (this is a very important reason),
3) should the banks of the drilling recede (due to oscillations), the steel cable does not sag because the hydraulic pressure (under the piston in the upper part of the system) causes the tightening of the steel cable which in turn generates resistance on the bottom anchor piston the movement of which activates the anchor pins to move towards the solid ground around them restoring the desirable embedding in the banks (side-walls) of the drilling.


This video, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C2Z1zmrJhsc towards the end, in the 52nd minute, presents an earthquake simulation, and shows very distinctly that the building structure is not tied (embedded) to the ground contrary to what was common belief to date. Clearly the object of this invention is to counterbalance (and not only that) these uplifting forces generated by the oscillation of the building.



The anti-seismic system installed inside the shaft of a load-bearing structure: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KPaNZcHBKRI
Invention webpage: http://www.antiseismic-systems.com/index.php?lang=el

Last edited by seismic; Mar 15, 2010 at 2:27 PM.
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Old Posted Mar 10, 2010, 8:45 PM
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New Video Of Invention

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KPaNZcHBKRI

I need a partner for the invention in America

Last edited by seismic; Mar 14, 2010 at 3:31 PM.
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Old Posted Mar 18, 2010, 11:58 PM
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For some reason, I keep reading the thread title as "My anti semitic systems"
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Old Posted Mar 19, 2010, 1:58 PM
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Lecom View Post
For some reason, I keep reading the thread title as "My anti semitic systems"
No the thread is ''My anti baby pills

Last edited by seismic; Mar 20, 2010 at 1:02 AM.
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Old Posted Apr 15, 2010, 7:38 PM
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This sounds like a technique we have been using for decades to improve the seismic resistance of concrete dams, Post-tensioned steel anchors are standard practice in this application and have been for decades.
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Old Posted Apr 16, 2010, 10:43 PM
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Innovative aspects
This is the first time that an anti-seismic patent connects the ground to the structure at appropriate points, independently (using an empty space, gap) of the rest of the structure, to develop flexible and rigid areas and by means of an anti-vibration slab to distribute evenly damage-causing earthquake and wind forces. There are areas where what's required is only rigidity and clamping/anchoring of structures such as dams, pylons, bridges, windmills, timber structures vulnerable to cyclones, and these requirements are satisfied by the tension tie for building structures.

This tension tie may be installed on existing structures as well as in structures under construction. It is as if we have just discovered a screw and are trying to work out how it can be used. The tension tie does exactly what a tree does: it has roots into the ground and flexible branches. On two sides of anti-seismic slabs, scaffolds are screwed together with the base to protect the tested structure from collapsing by the latter touching on them. The patent of this tension tie does just that, the only difference being that the (tension tie) scaffolding is screwed at the centre of the tested structure, providing a corresponding gap over and inside the ground.

Sounds like the technique you have been using, But is not like.
http://www.postimage.org/image.php?v=TsqTCGS
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Old Posted Jun 21, 2010, 11:23 AM
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AN ALTERNATIVE APPROACH TO BUILDING STABILITY

FIRST PLACEMENT METHOD

The patented video shows the mode of operation and method of collaboration of the antiseismic system, with bearings, which offers effective seismic isolation of the vertical and horizontal axes of a structure so that buildings repairs are avoided to the greatest extent following an earthquake:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KPaNZ...layer_embedded

http://www.postimage.org/image.php?v=PqdfyhS
http://www.postimage.org/image.php?v=gxKi2JJ
http://www.postimage.org/image.php?v=PqdfPKS
http://www.postimage.org/image.php?v=Pqdg6cS
http://www.postimage.org/image.php?v=PqdgiGA

SECOND PLACEMENT METHOD

http://www.postimage.org/image.php?v=PqdjPGi

There is another method of placement of the hydraulic traction mechanism in building structures.
This method does not include horizontal seismic isolation,
Or bearings
Or gaps
We simply convert sections of the internal brick-built walls of the building to walls consisting of reinforced concrete which have the same continuation on all of the floors. We insert these at carefully placed low pre-stress points between the bore hole and the hydraulic mechanism on the roof.

What we achieve with this method:

a) If the skeletal framework of a building tilts by a few degrees due to oscillation created by an earthquake, do the corners of the framework nodes have the possibility to remain at 90 degree angles?
Of course not,
Why not?
Simply stated, because the skeletal framework has a static load. During oscillation the nodes are required to take the force, but they cannot withstand this so the corners change shape, and, from right angles, some become greater and some lesser than 90 degrees. This results in slanting or bowed cracks in the corner nodes.
If the corners do withstand the static load so that they remain as right angles, logic tells us that the front and back columns will alternatively raise each other off the ground during oscillation. This, though, is impossible because the bearing element is full of nodes and static loads.

b) If the oscillation creates the above problems on the nodes, wouldn’t it be best if we can prevent this? And if so, how can we achieve this?

c) Another option might be to bind the building all around with steel cables at 45 degrees and anchor them (something which is impossible in practice).
Alternatively, we could take a portion of the structure, for example the internal walls and replace them with reinforced concrete and anchor these with the ground at appropriate points. In this way oscillation is prevented by bringing about resistance with roof, the connecting columns and the foundations of the structure.

Why do I recommend that we convert the internal brick walls to reinforced concrete and to anchor these with the ground?

For the following reasons:

a) So that the external walls are fully available for placement of doors, windows and glass panelling.

b) Because the internal walls due to their architectural nature have a cruciform shape and this dimensional form creates greater resistance to an earthquake from whichever direction it comes.

c) Because the formwork can be placed and removed easily.

d) Because dimensionally they are capable of withstanding the tendency to bend.

e) Because they have a superior dimensional plan and are capable of creating greater resistance in the chambers and columns.


In the diagrams below we illustrate the conversion of brick walls to reinforced concrete as well as the anchor points necessary to prevent oscillation of the building which strains the nodes of the structure creating slanting cracks:



http://www.postimage.org/image.php?v=PqdjPGi

Placement in underwater roads:
http://www.postimage.org/image.php?v=Pqdi7q9

Placement in continuous brick- based structures:
http://www.postimage.org/image.php?v=PqdhLYS

Placement in subordinate and wooden houses for protection from both earthquake and hurricane damage:
http://www.postimage.org/image.php?v=PqdgP6r

Placement in a dam:


This system can also be placed in bridge pylons under the bearings.




HOW WE STOP THE OSCILLATION OF THE STRUCTURE

By applying prestressing with the hydraulic traction mechanism between the drill hole and the top of the structure via the vertical supports. This prestressing not only improves endurance against shearing, but there is an additional advantage.

During inertia tension of the bearing element, oscillation is brought about. At the prestressed vertical support, two opposing forces are created. One in the pressure chamber and the other in the vertical column and it’s foundation as a reaction to the oscillation. Within the body of the vertical support these two opposing forces created act in resistance against the earthquake.

This resistance is in addition to the resistance already present in the nodes of the structure and acts against the catastrophic power of the earthquake.

We can exert prestress on the vertical elements in two ways:
a) normal prestress or
b) controlled lesser prestress.
If the preferred elements are able to withstand the stressing we apply the normal pre-stress. If they cannot, then we apply the controlled lesser prestress.

Greater prestress is applied initially, the moment we have sunk the traction mechanism in the drill hole, prior to construction of the support structure.

And afterwards, when we have anchored the steel cable with a wedge at ground level at the foundations, we fill the drill hole with concrete prior to constructing a pile. Then we continue the construction and when it is completed we undertake a simple pre-stressing of the upper chamber and foundations.

That is, the same steel cable will receive two pre-stresses. One initially between the ground surface and the anchor, and a second one between the foundations and upper chamber, with differing tensions.

With this method we have other benefits such as:

Compression of the ground (prior to the construction of the pile), protection of the mechanism from rust and avoidance of water extraction which may be present in coastal areas.

We can control the anchorage of the structure, with as much prestress or anchoring as is needed, since the prestress underneath the foundations will have a greater intensity than the subsequent prestressing of the foundations of the structure.
SITE http://www.antiseismic-systems.com/index.php?lang=en
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Old Posted Jul 21, 2010, 10:43 PM
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Old Posted Oct 13, 2010, 8:59 PM
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Old Posted Apr 17, 2011, 11:42 AM
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Link http://www.antiseismic-systems.com/


HYDRAULIC TIE ROD FOR CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS

The present invention relates to a hydraulic tie rod for construction projects ensuring the protection of the construction structures against damage caused by earthquakes and hurricanes.



Anti-seismic system placed in a shaft of a load-bearing structure
The main object of the hydraulic tie rod for construction projects of our invention along with its application method in the construction field for structural projects is to minimise the problems associated with the safety of structural projects such as buildings in the case of natural phenomena such as earthquakes, tornados and very powerful winds in general. According to the present invention, this can be achieved by a continuous pre-stressing (pulling) of both the roof of a large, geometrical part of the building structure which independent of the load-bearing structure towards the ground and of the ground towards the structure, making these two parts one body like a sandwich.

This pre-stressing force is applied by the mechanism of the hydraulic tie rod for construction projects, said mechanism mainly consisting of a steel cable penetrating free in the centre the vertical support elements of the structure, as well as the drilling length, beneath them. Said steel cable's lower end is tied to an anchor-type mechanism http://postimage.org/image/2dmcy79yc/

that is embedded into the banks (walls) of the drilling to prevent it from being uplifted. This embedding is attained due to the drilling hole being somewhat smaller than the exterior diameter of the completely opened anchor mechanism.

Said steel cable's top end is also tied to a hydraulic pulling mechanism exerting a continuous uplifting force. http://postimage.org/image/2mlql3ag4/

This pulling mechanism comprises a piston, said piston reciprocating within a piston sleeve, connected to a pressure chamber beneath it. This pulling force, exerted on the top-end of the steel cable, by the hydraulic mechanism http://postimage.org/image/qwytuv44/

due to the hydraulic pressure originating from the rise of the chamber towards the piston, and the reaction in this pulling force originating from the embedded anchor at its other end generate the desirable compression in the construction project which in turn is tied to the ground and thus rendered resistant to the horizontal forces of an earthquake. http://postimage.org/image/14tj1webo/



THE BENEFICIAL EFECTS OF PRESTRESSING (TRACTION) BETWEEN THE BULDING STRUCTURE AND THE GROUND

a) If we have a solid concrete column anchored to the ground with the traction mechanism and fortified with steel
or
b) If we have a solid concrete column prestressed with the ground (like a sandwich)

and we apply a horizontal traction, these columns will have more resistance to the sideways traction compared to a single column which simply stands on the ground.

This, I believe, is understandable to all.

Now, if we have two solid concrete columns that are not anchored to the ground but connected to each other at the top by a beam and we then apply a sideways force, in my opinion the following will occur:

1) Firstly, the columns themselves will produce a small resistance to the sideways force
2) When this resistance in the columns bends they do not subside as before because another force acts.
3) This additional force which resists the sideways traction is in the nodes.

This strength in the nodes arises from the union of the two columns with the beam which creates structural integrity and entity.

This node strength resists the sideways force like a torque.

If we consider all the resistance forces acting against the sideways traction we see that:

Concrete columns which are anchored or prestressed with the ground will create greater resistance than those which are simply resting upon the ground.

The corners will not need to act in resistance if the anchored or prestressed columns manage on their own to bring about enough resistance to the side force which we are applying.

Here we see that the prestressed or anchored columns act in addition to the existing resistance of the structure with regards to the horizontal inertia tension when faced with the opposing acceleration of an earthquake.

If the cross-section plan of the solid concrete walls http://postimage.org/image/r1aadhj8/ is appropriately constructed and the anchoring or prestressing is also appropriate then the corners will not need to undergo any torque resistance to side forces.

In this way we eliminate torque of the corners.

The union of the walls with the ground is carried out by the traction mechanism.

There are six methods of placement
HYDRAULIC TIE ROD FOR CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS

AN ALTERNATIVE APPROACH TO BUILDING STABILITY

FIRST PLACEMENT METHOD

The patented video shows the mode of operation and method of collaboration of the antiseismic system, with bearings, which offers effective seismic isolation of the vertical and horizontal axes of a structure so that buildings repairs are avoided to the greatest extent following an earthquake: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KPaNZ...layer_embedded
The above is achieved by placing right at the centre of the load-bearing structure, (Or both ends of the building) architecturally exploitable in an effort to lower the cost, pre-stressed with the ground but independent from the load-bearing structure, rigid shaft, or dimensionally large cross-shaped column, or even a big room. The essential condition for the above rigid geometrical forms is for them to have axial vertical continuity, along the whole height of the building, and to be constructed entirely from reinforced pre-stressed with the ground concrete.

This pre-stressing applied by the hydraulic tie rod on the shaft and on the ground, is mainly imposed in order for these two parts to become one body, such that at the horizontal acceleration of the earthquake, the ground, the base, and the loft of the shaft are found in the same acceleration phase (in the same time-space as one body in the three dimensions).

The larger the geometric dimensions of the base (cross-section area), relative to the height, the larger is the resistance in the foot block, as well as in the emerging shearing.

An increase in the pre-stressing placed on the shaft, means a corresponding increase in its resistance to shearing, an increase in the compaction of the drilling banks, and consequently a better embedding of the anchor mechanism.



In order to achieve the independence of the rigid shaft from the load-bearing structure, we leave a gap between them. This gap is useful for the following reasons:

· earthquake dynamics is not transferred from the shaft to the load-bearing structure,

· the load-bearing structure remains independent in the seismic insulation offered to it by the double “one-piece” base-plate away from the oscillating shaft,

· the load-bearing structure exhausts the mechanical resistance properties of the existing reinforcement, (so that it does not transfer large impact forces to the shaft), and just before it breaks, there occurs damping and retaining of the load-bearing structure on hydraulic systems placed in the lift gap, (rubber, or dampers),

· to prevent the load-bearing structure from leaning on the lift shaft and transferring the additional compressive forces of its weight, thereby making the application of further pre-stressing forces on the shaft possible, thus rendering it more rigid.

· to help the columns in transferring the earthquake forces, not only vertically, but also laterally in same time-space, by means of the pre-stressed rigid shaft and the dampers.



All this elasticity of the vertical axis of the load-bearing structure may be put under control in such a fashion as to achieve the smooth transfer of its vertical axis torques to the shaft.

When it is intended for the upper floors to oscillate more than the lower ones, the gap on the upper floors is made larger, setting a lower pressure on their hydraulics, in relation to the lower floors. Operating in such a manner, and in order to keep the bending action of the vertical axis under control to avoid the destructive transfer of torque towards the lower floors, the transfer of torque is computed statically during the plate impact from each and every floor onto the shaft and following that the proper gap between each floor plate and the rigid structure is computed and the proper hydraulic pressure is applied on the dampers.

In order to further strengthen the rigidity of the rigid structure (shaft), to decrease the oscillation amplitude, to prevent the overthrow, and to increase the shaft resistance to the shearing stress that is generated by the lateral impact of the plates due to their inertia, it is necessary to render the rigid structure “one-body” with the ground.

This can be achieved by means of the hydraulic tie rod for construction projects mechanism, applying pre-stressing between the loft (top floor) and the ground, making these two parts “one-body”.

CONCLUSION

It is wrong to let the columns transfer all alone the horizontal forces of an earthquake from the bottom to the top in the load-bearing structure, as is currently the case in the majority of the building construction methods.

The horizontal forces of an earthquake are not transferred effortlessly from the columns to the structure framework, this being due to the existence of other forces acting contrary to the direction of the earthquake horizontal forces, said forces originating from the inertia of the plates and resulting in the plates not responding readily to the direction of the earthquake horizontal forces. This opposition of forces on the horizontal axis of the building structure, creates shearing stresses, as well as non-uniform bending in the shape of an S (for the reasons reported above) deforming the vertical axis of the structure, with the known results.

It is at this point that the invention provides for the columns to transfer the earthquake forces uniformly and smoothly, not only vertically towards the top, but also horizontally to the floor plates, by means of the hydraulic tie rod, the pre-stressed shaft, and the hydraulic dampers placed in the gap.

Deductively in this way, the framework vertical axis maintains its initial form, not deforming into an S shape, due to the uniform movement of the mass of the multiple plates in the same time-space imposed on them by the pre-stressed shaft, relieving and helping this way the columns to transfer the destructive earthquake forces to the plates. That is to say, the invention creates controlled flexibility on the load-bearing structure vertical axis, helps the columns transfer laterally the earthquake forces to the plates, at the same time achieving the seismic insulation of the load-bearing structure horizontal axis (with double “one-piece” base-plates carrying elastic inserts between them). Moreover it also stops the tendency of the building to rise unilaterally, said tendency originating from the increase of the oscillation co-ordination, which oscillation co-ordination depends on the height of the building, the time duration of the earthquake as well as the wavelength of the earthquake and the amplitude of its oscillation.

Ground fluidization (subsidence) as well as the cracks, caused by an earthquake, are a major problem, which, however, in part has been resolved by the invention.



Stopping the video at the point showing under the ground surface, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KPaNZ...layer_embedded

or http://postimage.org/image/2dmcy79yc/

a pipe can be observed starting from the anchor and reaching up to the bottom part of the base.



This is called resistance pipe, and is useful for the following reasons:

· it constitutes the passage of the steel cable applying the pre-stressing,

· should the ground recede under the base, then this resistance pipe undertakes the weight of the base and transfers it to the banks (side-walls) of the drilling (this is a very important reason),

· should the banks of the drilling recede (due to oscillations), the steel cable does not sag because the hydraulic pressure (under the piston in the upper part of the system) causes the tightening of the steel cable which in turn generates resistance on the bottom anchor piston the movement of which activates the anchor pins to move towards the solid ground around them restoring the desirable embedding in the banks (side-walls) of the drilling.

SECOND PLACEMENT METHOD

There is another method of placement of the hydraulic traction mechanism in building structures.
This method does not include horizontal seismic isolation, http://postimage.org/image/r1aadhj8/
Or bearings
Or gaps
We simply convert sections of the internal brick-built walls of the building to walls consisting of reinforced concrete which have the same continuation on all of the floors. We insert these at carefully placed low pre-stress points between the bore hole and the hydraulic mechanism on the roof.

What we achieve with this method:

a) If the skeletal framework of a building tilts by a few degrees due to oscillation created by an earthquake, do the corners of the framework nodes have the possibility to remain at 90 degree angles?
Of course not,
Why not?
Simply stated, because the skeletal framework has a static load. During oscillation the nodes are required to take the force, but they cannot withstand this so the corners change shape, and, from right angles, some become greater and some lesser than 90 degrees. This results in slanting or bowed cracks in the corner nodes.
If the corners do withstand the static load so that they remain as right angles, logic tells us that the front and back columns will alternatively raise each other off the ground during oscillation. This, though, is impossible because the bearing element is full of nodes and static loads.

b) If the oscillation creates the above problems on the nodes, wouldn’t it be best if we can prevent this? And if so, how can we achieve this?

c) Another option might be to bind the building all around with steel cables at 45 degrees and anchor them (something which is impossible in practice).
Alternatively, we could take a portion of the structure, for example the internal walls and replace them with reinforced concrete and anchor these with the ground at appropriate points. In this way oscillation is prevented by bringing about resistance with roof, the connecting columns and the foundations of the structure.

Why do I recommend that we convert the internal brick walls to reinforced concrete and to anchor these with the ground?

For the following reasons:

a) So that the external walls are fully available for placement of doors, windows and glass panelling.

b) Because the internal walls due to their architectural nature have a cruciform shape and this dimensional form creates greater resistance to an earthquake from whichever direction it comes.

c) Because the formwork can be placed and removed easily.

d) Because dimensionally they are capable of withstanding the tendency to bend.

e) Because they have a superior dimensional plan and are capable of creating greater resistance in the chambers and columns.


In the diagrams below we illustrate the conversion of brick walls to reinforced concrete as well as the anchor points necessary to prevent oscillation of the building which strains the nodes of the structure creating slanting cracks: http://postimage.org/image/r1aadhj8/





Placement in underwater roads:
http://www.postimage.org/image.php?v=aVsUYe0

Placement in continuous brick- based structures:
http://www.postimage.org/image.php?v=aVsUGM0

Placement in subordinate and wooden houses for protection from both earthquake and hurricane damage:
http://www.postimage.org/image.php?v=aVsUEgS

Placement in a dam:
http://www.postimage.org/image.php?v=aVsUQKA

This system can also be placed in bridge pylons under the bearings.




THIRD PLACEMENT METHOD

By applying prestressing with the hydraulic traction mechanism between the drill hole and the top of the structure via the vertical supports. This prestressing not only improves endurance against shearing, but there is an additional advantage.

During inertia tension of the bearing element, oscillation is brought about. At the prestressed vertical support, two opposing forces are created. One in the pressure chamber and the other in the vertical column and it’s foundation as a reaction to the oscillation. Within the body of the vertical support these two opposing forces created act in resistance against the earthquake.

This resistance is in addition to the resistance already present in the nodes of the structure and acts against the catastrophic power of the earthquake.

We can exert prestress on the vertical elements in two ways:
a) normal prestress or
b) controlled lesser prestress.
If the preferred elements are able to withstand the stressing we apply the normal pre-stress. If they cannot, then we apply the controlled lesser prestress.

Greater prestress is applied initially, the moment we have sunk the traction mechanism in the drill hole, prior to construction of the support structure.

And afterwards, when we have anchored the steel cable with a wedge at ground level at the foundations, we fill the drill hole with concrete prior to constructing a pile. Then we continue the construction and when it is completed we undertake a simple pre-stressing of the upper chamber and foundations.

That is, the same steel cable will receive two pre-stresses. One initially between the ground surface and the anchor, and a second one between the foundations and upper chamber, with differing tensions.

With this method we have other benefits such as:

Compression of the ground (prior to the construction of the pile), protection of the mechanism from rust and avoidance of water extraction which may be present in coastal areas.

We can control the anchorage of the structure, with as much prestress or anchoring as is needed, since the prestress underneath the foundations will have a greater intensity than the subsequent prestressing of the foundations of the structure.



FOURTH PLACEMENT METHOD: BETWEEN THE RADIERE (FOUNDATIONS WHICH COVER THE COMPLETE AREA OF THE CONSTRUCTION) AND THE GROUND.

As can be seen in the photograph http://postimage.org/image/15or8eeuc/ , at the upper part there are two bricks which support a bolt.
Above and below the bolt there are two thick metal plates.
The lower plate is soldered to a resistance pipe.
The upper plate has a hole for the bolt to pass through.
The upper plate bears a nut on the top side and another nut on the underside.

The more this bolt is pulled upwards, the greater the anchor diameter anchor becomes below. This in turn presses increasingly against the walls of the borehole thereby providing anchorage.

If we drill a borehole with a diameter of 20cm and depth of 1.4m and we sink the anchor in it,http://postimage.org/image/2fyw5jh38/ the sinking will halt at the lower plate as it is larger than the hole.

If the bricks in the photograph are in fact hydraulic jacks.http://postimage.org/image/15or8eeuc/ By elevating these we can create a great amount prestress in the system and very strong anchorage against the sides of the borehole.

When the jacks are elevated they exert pressure both upwards and downwards.http://postimage.org/image/15or8eeuc/

The lower plate cannot move downwards because there is resistance from the ground.

The bolt on the upper side of the top plate prevents it from rising due to the upward pressure which the hydraulic jacks create.

We then screw the nut which is situated between the two plates downwards until it reaches the lower plate and in this way we complete the prestressing.

Then we remove the jacks.

Now consider the bolt which protrudes from the ground. We stated that it is secured to the top plate at its upper surface by a nut.

The upper part of the bolt which bears the plate is anchored inside the fortified concrete of the foundations (the radiere). Also, the foundations are connected to the concrete walls via the joining mechanism.http://postimage.org/image/xci31flw/

In this way we will have the beneficial results that I have stated above. That is, we will prevent torque of the corners.

FIFTH PLACEMENT METHOD FOR EXISTING PILOTIS

Here, on each column of the pilotis which is situated around the perimeter of the foundations, we place metal beams which are connected to each other and prestressed at their four corners with the ground using the patented mechanism. After doing this, we place another four metal beams parallel and tangent to the sides of the column. These are anchored into the grooves of the other metal beams. Afterwards we make grooves in the parallel metal beams so that they can be tightened with nuts and bolt. We pass the bolt inside a pipe so that it is independent from the concrete. Around the perimeter of the column we place clamps or insert screws which protrude from the column. We construct a concrete mantle around the perimeter of the column. When this is set, the upper end of the bolt is tightened using the nuts, so creating prestressed concrete.
The same process is repeated on each column of the pilotis.

SIXTH PLACEMENT METHOD FOR EXISTING PREFABRICATED HOUSES

Here, in order to apply prestressing to the structure there are two problems:

1) How will we drill a bore hole?
2) How will we pass the metal cable through the reinforced concrete walls?

SOLUTION
1) Instead of drilling a bore hole under the base, we drill it 40 cm beyond the external fortified concrete walls of the existing prefabricated house.
2) We apply surface prestress between the ground surface and the drill hole so that we anchor the traction mechanism well with the ground.

Prior to applying prestress on the traction mechanism though we have carried out the following:
Underneath the tightening nut we place a hollow steel beam of which one end extends outwards and penetrates into the fortified concrete walls of the structure (which we have previously dug out).

The other end extends back from the bore hole so that we have lever resistance.

The outer end of the hollow beam has a U-shaped groove which is used to anchor one end of the metal cable.

The other end of the cable is anchored to the top of the concrete wall once we have ensured its passage through it by opening a deep gully which is plastered over after the prestressing operation.

In this way we anchor the building externally.

By the same method we can prestress with the ground other prefabricated structures such as dams, pylons, bridges etc.

The traction mechanism is appropriate for all works where piles and cement injection are required. In fact it is far superior to these because it has the added benefit of greater resistance as well as improvement in the relaxation of the ground due to prestressing and ground compression.

It can even be used for containment of loose ground on mountain slopes during the excavation and construction of roads.

Other beneficial properties offered by prestressing of a structure with the ground include:

1) Prestressing (in general, compression) has a very positive result as it improves the trajectories of oblique tension.
2) Compression means that there is reduced cracking. This increases the active cross section and increases rigidity of the structure.

We have two types of construction traction mechanisms and two patent licences pending internationally:

1) The simple traction mechanism for construction. This has exactly the same utility with the hydraulic one on solid ground.
2) The hydraulic traction mechanism for construction. This is suited to loose ground because is protects the structure more from subsidence.

How it achieves this


------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


FOUNDATIONS

I propose using large area foundations (radiere) and not individual bases

ECONOMICAL/TECHNICAL STUDY

There are three methods of construction:

a) Frame structure, where the weight of the furniture, the slabs, the walls and the beams is transferred to the columns and then from the columns it is transferred to the foundations.

In a skeletal structure, the walls even though they are counted as static load play an important role in the strength of the structure.

Here, building alterations which are carried out by an individual owner within an apartment building are wrong, not only for his own apartment, but for the whole apartment building.

We must agree that with regards to frame structure, he who carries out alterations must be aware of this.

b) Continuous construction, where the loads are assumed by the walls and transmitted to the ground.

Here alterations are prohibited without an expert.

c) Composite construction, which either utilises different materials (metal beams plus concrete) or continuous construction together with a frame.

I consider that the construction suitable for the traction mechanism is continuous construction internally and frame structure externally.

How I propose to deal with the problem of building alterations:

If, for example, we are constructing an apartment building where every floor contains four apartments, I would carry out the following so that individual owners can carry out the alterations they wish.

Firstly, I would place columns around the perimeter of the building.

After, internally I would construct the internal design in a cross pattern so that the cross creates the partition walls of the four apartments.

I would convert the cross to walls of reinforced concrete and I would anchor their ends with the hydraulic traction mechanism.

At the centre of the cross the elevator shaft would be built and the hallway around this would provide entrance to the apartments (these also made out of reinforced concrete).

If this is done, from whichever direction the earthquake comes there is resistance in the roof and the foundations. Not only this, but because of the large profile area of the cross section of the concrete walls, we eliminate the problem of shearing and bending.

Another possibility which we could carry out so that there is the option to carry out building alterations is the following:

If the apartment building has adjacent walls (which have no windows) we convert the adjacent walls to fortified concrete ones with anchoring. In addition, we convert another central internal wall of the apartment building to fortified concrete so that a double T cross section is formed.

Another possible form which we can give so that we can carry out alterations is to place two elevator shafts together with the corridor shafts at two opposing ends of the structure and insert the traction mechanism in their corners.

These square shafts may serve either as elevators, storerooms or other communal spaces.

If you search, there are always solutions.

I am a builder by trade and when I give an estimate for concrete construction work, the first thing I examine is the degree of difficulty of the formwork.

If you were to ask me to take on the whole construction including the excavation, I would make certain comparisons as to what is in my best interests. Radiere (continuous foundations which cover the whole area of the construction) or foundations with connecting beams ?

Initially I would calculate how many cubic metres of concrete are required for the radiere and how many for the foundations with connecting beams.

From my experience, I believe that the radiere uses 20% more fortified concrete compared to foundations with their connecting beams. The latter though requires much more work than the former in the following areas:

a) formwork
b) excavation

Comparing the figures, we see that the two options if not exactly the same, the radiere is slightly cheaper than the foundations and connecting beams.

It is a fact that more cubic metres of concrete with less formwork create more profit for the contractor. The estimate then per cubic metre of fortified concrete for the radiere will be markedly lower.

Comparing these figures, we see that the radiere is somewhat cheaper even if it does have 20% more fortified concrete.

As for the walls, it is cheaper to build one solid fortified concrete wall than it is to constructing in its place two columns with beam and double masonry.

If the whole house is constructed from fortified concrete there will still be sideways deflections (cracks) because the static loads increase on the bearing element, the inertia of which during an earthquake, will cause the building to lift up on one side and transfer its weight to moment of the nodes.

The cost is approximately 4,000 euro for an anchored radiere of 100 metres square. This includes the mechanisms (the cost of the anchor is 200 euro), construction works and boreholes.

http://postimage.org/image/w37m65ms/
http://postimage.org/image/2mkga1kmc/
http://postimage.org/image/14s73bc04/
http://postimage.org/image/15qym72jo/
http://postimage.org/image/2r7apjukk/


With rock we have a difficult but shallow borehole. On soft ground we have an easy but deeper one. I estimate that these will have the same cost.

link.... anti seismic systems http://www.antiseismic-systems.com/

http://www.michanikos.gr/showthread.php?t=12040

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JJIsx1sKkLk

Ideal for prefabricated houses made ​​of reinforced concrete
Makes Homebuilding cheaper 30 - 50%
Because prefabricated houses made ​​of reinforced concrete are cheap 30 - 50% less than conventional housing

Last edited by seismic; Apr 17, 2011 at 12:06 PM.
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  #17  
Old Posted Apr 17, 2011, 12:11 PM
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Για Έλληνες Μηχανικούς.

Ερώτηση
Τι κάνει η ευρεσιτεχνία, που δεν κάνει η εφαρμοσμένη τεχνολογία σήμερα.
Απάντηση
Η εφαρμοσμένη τεχνολογία σήμερα απλός εδράζει την κατασκευή στο έδαφος.
Η ευρεσιτεχνία την ενώνει με το έδαφος, κάνοντας αυτά τα δύο μέρει ένα, (σαν σάντουιτς)
Ερώτηση
Τι πετυχαίνει αυτή η ένωση της κατασκευής με το έδαφος?
Απάντηση
Όταν στεκόμαστε όρθιοι στο λεωφορείο, και αυτό ξεκινά προς τα εμπρός, εμείς έχουμε την τάση να πάμε προς τα πίσω.
Το ίδιο συμβαίνει στις κατασκευές.
Σε ένα ψιλό κτήριο, κατά την επιτάχυνση του σεισμού, αυτό ταλαντεύεται μπρος - πίσω έχοντας τάση ροπής.
Δηλαδή το κτήριο γέρνοντας ( εναλλάξ ) έχει την τάση, το μπροστινό μέρος του να σηκώσει το πίσω.
Ερώτηση
Γιατί όμως δεν σηκώνεται?
Απάντηση.
Γιατί όταν σηκωθεί το κτήριο μονόπλευρα δημιουργείται ένα κενό κάτω από τις πίσω βάσεις.
Αυτό το κενό δεν παρέχει πλέων στήριξη των πίσω κολονών, και αφήνει το βάρος του πίσω μέρους του κτηρίου μετέωρο
Αυτό το πίσω βάρος του κτηρίου, μεταφέρετε σαν δύναμη ροπής στους κόμβους του μπροστινού μέρους του κτηρίου.
Αυτή η ροπή σπάει τον λαιμό της κολόνας, δημιουργώντας αστοχία.

Αυτό που κάνει η αντισεισμική ευρεσιτεχνία, είναι να μην αφήνει το έργο να σηκωθεί μονόπλευρα, ώστε να μείνουν μετέωρες οι βάσεις, και να δράσουν τα στατικά φορτία του κτηρίου, δημιουργώντας τις ροπές που κόβουν τις κολόνες.
Αυτό το κατορθώνει εξασκόντας μία δύναμη στο δώμα και αυτόματα λόγο ροπής, δημιουργείται και μία άλλη αντίσταση αντίθετη, στο Π της βάσης.
Για να το κατορθώσει αυτό, πρέπει οι κολόνες να είναι μεγάλες, σαν τοιχία, όπως τα προκατασκευασμένα σπίτια, για να αποφύγουμε τον λυγισμό της κολόνας.
Κατ αυτόν τον τρόπο, αν τοποθετήσουμε την ευρεσιτεχνία στα προκατασκευασμένα, κατεβάζουμε και το κόστος της οικοδομής.
Φαντάσου σπίτια ΠΡΟΚΑΤΑΣΚΕΥΑΣΜΈΝΑ από οπλισμένο σκυρόδεμα, βιδωμένα στις τέσσερις γωνίες με την σεισμική βάση.......και ανάποδα να τα γυρίσεις δεν θα πάθουν τίποτα.
Ερώτηση
Γιατί όταν δεν τα βιδώσουμε με την βάση, τι θα πάθουν?
Απάντηση
Αν έχουμε ψιλά κτήρια εξ ολοκλήρου κατασκευασμένα από οπλισμένο σκυρόδεμα, αυτά θα αντέχουν μεν στην διάτμηση, αλλά οι κόμβοι τους θα έχουν αυξημένα φορτία, λόγο του κενού που αναφέραμε ότι δημιουργείται κατά την ροπή αδράνειας, και λόγο μεγαλύτερου στατικού φορτίου που έχουν από τον κανονικό σκελετό της οικοδομής.
Για τον λόγο αυτό, οι κατασκευές των προκατασκευασμένων είναι για λίγους ορόφους.
Αν όμως κάνουμε ένα σώμα το προκατασκευασμένο με το έδαφος, ...δεν μπορεί να σηκωθεί μονόπλευρα,στην ροπή αδράνειας, οπότε, καταργούμε τις ροπές των κόμβων.

Υπάρχει και το οικονομικό μέρος.
Πιστεύω ότι αυτή η μέθοδος θα βάλει τα προκατασκευασμένα από σκυρόδεμα σπίτια, και μέσα στην πόλη.

Έως τώρα αυτά τα σπίτια είναι μόνο για εξοχικά.
Ο κύριος λόγος είναι ότι, ο νόμος δεν τους επιτρέπει, το ύψος τους να ξεπερνά τους δύο ορόφους.
Όταν όμως γίνουν άτρωτα στον σεισμό, και μπορούν να αντέχουν πολλούς ορόφους, τότε θα επιτραπεί και η δόμηση στην πόλη.

Τώρα δεν τα βάζουν μέσα σε πόλεις, διότι αν στην πόλη επιτρέπετε να χτίσεις ένα δεκαόροφο, και το προκατασκευασμένο αντέχει δύο ορόφους, δεν σε συμφέρει να χάσεις τον αέρα για άλλους οκτώ ορόφους.

Αν όμως το κάνω να αντέχει, τότε θα καταργηθούν οι συμβατικοί τρόποι κατασκευής, γιατί τα προκατασκευασμένα είναι πιο φτηνά,30-50% γιατί είναι βιομηχανοποιημένα.
Έτσι θα έχουν κέρδος οι βιομήχανοι από αυτή την αλλαγή, αλλά και οι ιδιοκτήτες.
Το αντισεισμικό σύστημα,μπορεί να τοποθετηθεί σε υπό κατασκευή,καθώς και σε υφιστάμενες κατασκευές.
Τοποθετήτε σε σπίτια, φράγματα, πυλώνες γεφυρών, πρανή εδαφών και σε πολλά έργα αντιστήριξης, σαν προετεταμένο αγκύριο
Προστατεύει και τις ελαφριές κατασκευές, από τους ανεμοστρόβιλους, που συμβαίνουν συχνά στην Αμερική.
Ακόμα προστατεύει τις κατασκευές από την καθίζηση των χαλαρών εδαφών, γιατί δουλεύει σαν την βίδα με το ούπα, που δεν αφήνει την βίδα να πάει ούτε μέσα, ούτε έξω

Με λίγα λόγια, η ροπή αδράνειας σηκώνει την κατασκευή μονόπλευρα,...και τα στατικά φορτία δημιουργούν την αστοχία.
Πως αλλιώς μπορούμε να εξηγήσουμε τα λοξά βέλη?

Αν όμως εφαρμόσουμε προένταση μεταξύ εδάφους και δώματος, σε στοιχεία με μεγάλη διατομή κάτοψις, τότε αυτά αδυνατούν να περιστραφούν στην ροπή αδράνειας, λόγο δύο αντίθετων δυνάμεων που εφαρμόζονται κατακόρυφα στην μάζα τους
α) Μία κάθετη δύναμη από τον ελκυστήρα στο δώμα,
β) Από την αντίσταση του εδάφους στο Π της βάσης.
Έτσι την ροπή την παίρνει το τοιχίο,.....και όχι ο κόμβος.
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  #18  
Old Posted Apr 19, 2011, 3:50 AM
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Sorry, every time I see this thread pop up on the main forum page I think it says my anti semitic system. Anyways, carry on.
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  #19  
Old Posted Apr 19, 2011, 4:59 PM
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Quote:
Originally Posted by photolitherland View Post
Sorry, every time I see this thread pop up on the main forum page I think it says my anti semitic system. Anyways, carry on.
was JUST about to say the same thing, lol...
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  #20  
Old Posted Apr 20, 2011, 5:40 PM
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My new patent

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