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Old Posted Jan 11, 2018, 5:42 PM
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What were the largest past interprovincial (or domestic) migrations within Canada?

It's been noted that compared to the US where there was lots of inter-state movement historically (eg. the settlement of the west from the east in general, the Great Migration of millions of African Americans from the south to the north, the "Okies" who migrated to California during the Dust Bowl period, the current Sunbelt boom), in Canada, there has been little mass migration within the country between provinces, once most people settled within their part of Canada.

Many people were actually more likely to move into Canada (immigration) or out of it (emigration, especially to the US) than move between places within.

But what are the major examples of mass migration within Canada's own borders?

Franco-Ontarians settling Ontario from Quebec?

Settlement of the west (from eastern Canada, in addition to overseas immigration?)

The Klondike Gold Rush?
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Old Posted Jan 11, 2018, 5:55 PM
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It's been noted that compared to the US where there was lots of inter-state movement historically (eg. the settlement of the west from the east in general, the Great Migration of millions of African Americans from the south to the north, the "Okies" who migrated to California during the Dust Bowl period, the current Sunbelt boom), in Canada, there has been little mass migration within the country between provinces, once most people settled within their part of Canada.

Many people were actually more likely to move into Canada (immigration) or out of it (emigration, especially to the US) than move between places within.

But what are the major examples of mass migration within Canada's own borders?

Franco-Ontarians settling Ontario from Quebec?

Settlement of the west (from eastern Canada, in addition to overseas immigration?)

The Klondike Gold Rush?
Mass movement from Ontario, especially rural Ontario, to the Prairies in the 1890s and 1900s. You can’t look at a small town newspaper from that period where there isn’t a write up about some newlywed couple being seen off at the train station, headed for their new farm in Manitoba or Saskatchewan.

I do notice an arc of movement in which young Ontario men and families would be in Winnipeg around 1910-12, then head west, eventually turning up in Vancouver around 1920 and not infrequently ending up in California.

An earlier migration was in relation to the Cariboo gold rush. That drew a lot of young men across the country.
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  #3  
Old Posted Jan 11, 2018, 6:06 PM
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I doubt any of ours were largest, but relatively significant. Movement from the Maritimes to western Newfoundland in the 1860s-80s. Movement from Newfoundland to the Maritimes in the 1920s. And the mass exodus of economic migrants around the world in the 1990s.

To put the 1990s (also when I first left) in context.

Newfoundland's population, 1991: 568,475
*Cod Moratorium - 1992*
Newfoundland's population, 2006: 505,469
Loss: 63,006
As a percentage of population: 11.1%

And that's only part of the picture. Far more people were internally displaced (moved to regional centres along the TCH, including the Northeast Avalon and St. John's) than moved abroad. You'd really need a war to find a comparable social collapse.
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Old Posted Jan 11, 2018, 6:15 PM
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Franco-Ontarians settling Ontario from Quebec?
Migration from what is now Quebec (over time - the same territory with no borders whatsoever, then Canada East, then Lower Canada, then Quebec) formed and still forms the basis of the Franco-Ontarian population, but I've never been able to find figures on how many people actually moved.

The migration of French Canadians out of Quebec to the NE US from about 1850 to 1950 has been estimated at as much as 1 million people.

This specific migration is estimated to have spawned about 8-10 million (Franco-)American descendants today.

At the moment there are about 500,000 Franco-Ontarians. Not all but the vast majority of them are descended from people who once lived in what is today Quebec*.

About as many Ontarians or maybe slightly more are descendants of French Canadians from Quebec but are no longer francophones.

So I am positive the francophone migration from Quebec to Ontario, which has been ongoing (at varying clips) for several centuries, was nonetheless way less than the migration to the NE US.

*Overall, about 18-20 million descendants of New France are estimated to be living in Canada and the U.S. today. They're roughly equally divided between the two countries. About 7 million of them can still be called "francophones", and almost all of those are in Canada.
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Old Posted Jan 11, 2018, 7:21 PM
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Doukhobors, who were Russian pacificts and came to Canada with help from Tolstoi, landed at Halifax and Quebec City, settled in Saskatchewan and then in the Castlegar area of BC. Numbers from 7000-10000.
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  #6  
Old Posted Jan 11, 2018, 7:25 PM
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Among more recent migrations, I would think the relatively steady of flow of people from all over Canada but especially Ontario, Saskatchewan and Manitoba into Alberta from the 70s to the early part of this decade would have to be up there.

Certainly in Manitoba and Saskatchewan you'd have a hard time finding someone whose circle of friends and relatives didn't include at least a couple of people who moved to Alberta... it dwarfs movement to other provinces. A good number might have gone to BC or Ontario, and there might have been a smattering to the other provinces. But they probably pale in number to those who pulled up stakes for Alberta.
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Old Posted Jan 11, 2018, 8:00 PM
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- Loyalist migration to the Maritimes, and to eastern Ontario in the 1780s

- "going down the road" from the Maritimes, first to New England (1890s-1950s) and subsequently to Ontario (1960s-1980s) and Alberta (1990s-2010s).
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Old Posted Jan 11, 2018, 8:07 PM
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- Anglo-Quebecers migrating to Ontario in the 70's and 80's ; the number is around ~300K (source).
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Old Posted Jan 11, 2018, 8:23 PM
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Originally Posted by begratto View Post
- Anglo-Quebecers migrating to Ontario in the 70's and 80's ; the number is around ~300K (source).
Now that you mention it, that could be the biggest one in the past 40-50 years.
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Old Posted Jan 11, 2018, 9:56 PM
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I posted something in the Statistics thread in October about interprovincial migration movements from 1986 to present. See below:

I did some calculations from StatsCan on inter provincial migration over the last 3 decades. Starting from July 1 1986 to July 1 2017 (one year after the 2016 census), I calculated the total net inter provincial migration for each province. Only BC and Alberta had positive inter provincial migration during this period. BC gained 397,023 and Alberta gained 394,223. Percentage-wise, Alberta did the best, and BC for total number. Every other province lost population in exchanges with the other provinces. See numbers below:
NL -86,116
PE -3,680
NS -36,784
NB -40,520
QC -290,396
ON -3,133
MB -159,143
SK -154,913
AB +394,223
BC +397,023
YK -186
NT -3,680
NU -2,541

There were variances within certain periods for sure, but this is the total number after 31 years. The only thing that pushed BC past Alberta is the most recent Jul 2016-2017 period. BC gained 16,000 during this period, and Alberta lost 15,000. But they are essentially neck and neck in total numbers over the past 30 years. Ontario will be back in positive territory by the next population estimate, but won't be anywhere near BC for the forseeable future barring any catastrophe. Alberta will likely have a couple more quarters of losses, but it is slowing.

All data can be pulled from tables here:
http://www5.statcan.gc.ca/cansim/a26...ataTable&csid=

I have an excel sheet with each year and census period, so you can see the breakdown. Some swings are fairly dramatic, with some years being hugely positive and then swinging to negative. The largest growth in a single census period was BC in 1991-1996, gaining 167,290. The largest loss was Quebec in 1996-2001, losing 69,047.


With the latest Q3 population estimates, Ontario is in fact back in positive territory, net gain of 4,674 from 1986-2017. BC still the highest with 397,566 and Alberta in second with 394,966. Alberta and Ontario to BC were always two of the largest movements. Ontario typically loses population to BC, Alberta, and hit or miss with the other provinces. But almost always gains with Quebec. But I think with the economy in Quebec finally improved, those numbers could be changing.
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Old Posted Jan 11, 2018, 10:15 PM
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I remember my Winnipeg school and neighbourhood being affected quite noticeably around 1971 by Trudeau’s decision to move Air Canada maintenance to Montreal. Even though we lived a long way from the airport, and probably had fewer AC employees than other neighbourhoods, this was a big enough event that I was fully aware of it at the age of 7 or 8.

I don’t remember quite as many people moving to Alberta after 1973 (which is when the oil embargo took place, Alberta became rich, and everything changed forever) but it must have happened.
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Old Posted Jan 11, 2018, 10:41 PM
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I was kind of shocked when I first saw that number for NS. People there constantly harp on how young people all move away. Likewise Canadians tend to think that outmigration from the Maritimes is huge; the primary phenomenon they think of when talking about the regions economy. 3-5% of the population leaving in total during a period of decades is not very significant.

This is much closer to being true for Newfoundland than it is for all of Atlantic Canada. A lot of the negative stereotypes applied to the Maritimes are based on confusion relating to Newfoundland.

Meanwhile as far as I can tell there is no negative national stereotype about economic refugees from Saskatchewan or Manitoba.
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Old Posted Jan 11, 2018, 10:45 PM
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Quote:
Originally Posted by zahav View Post
I posted something in the Statistics thread in October about interprovincial migration movements from 1986 to present. See below:

I did some calculations from StatsCan on inter provincial migration over the last 3 decades. Starting from July 1 1986 to July 1 2017 (one year after the 2016 census), I calculated the total net inter provincial migration for each province. Only BC and Alberta had positive inter provincial migration during this period. BC gained 397,023 and Alberta gained 394,223. Percentage-wise, Alberta did the best, and BC for total number. Every other province lost population in exchanges with the other provinces. See numbers below:
NL -86,116
PE -3,680
NS -36,784
NB -40,520
QC -290,396
ON -3,133
MB -159,143
SK -154,913
AB +394,223
BC +397,023
YK -186
NT -3,680
NU -2,541

There were variances within certain periods for sure, but this is the total number after 31 years. The only thing that pushed BC past Alberta is the most recent Jul 2016-2017 period. BC gained 16,000 during this period, and Alberta lost 15,000. But they are essentially neck and neck in total numbers over the past 30 years. Ontario will be back in positive territory by the next population estimate, but won't be anywhere near BC for the forseeable future barring any catastrophe. Alberta will likely have a couple more quarters of losses, but it is slowing.

All data can be pulled from tables here:
http://www5.statcan.gc.ca/cansim/a26...ataTable&csid=

I have an excel sheet with each year and census period, so you can see the breakdown. Some swings are fairly dramatic, with some years being hugely positive and then swinging to negative. The largest growth in a single census period was BC in 1991-1996, gaining 167,290. The largest loss was Quebec in 1996-2001, losing 69,047.


With the latest Q3 population estimates, Ontario is in fact back in positive territory, net gain of 4,674 from 1986-2017. BC still the highest with 397,566 and Alberta in second with 394,966. Alberta and Ontario to BC were always two of the largest movements. Ontario typically loses population to BC, Alberta, and hit or miss with the other provinces. But almost always gains with Quebec. But I think with the economy in Quebec finally improved, those numbers could be changing.
Given the demographics of the province and the country as a whole, I don't see the situation ever truly reversing itself for Quebec. Regardless of how hot the economy here gets.

The last time Quebec had a positive net interprovincial migration figure was 1961.
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Old Posted Jan 11, 2018, 10:54 PM
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I was kind of shocked when I first saw that number for NS. People there constantly harp on how young people all move away. Likewise Canadians tend to think that outmigration from the Maritimes is huge; the primary phenomenon they think of when talking about the regions economy. 3-5% of the population leaving in total during a period of decades is not very significant.

This is much closer to being true for Newfoundland than it is for all of Atlantic Canada. A lot of the negative stereotypes applied to the Maritimes are based on confusion relating to Newfoundland.

Meanwhile as far as I can tell there is no negative national stereotype about economic refugees from Saskatchewan or Manitoba.
Many of the people I met in Nova Scotia back then certainly deserved every consequence of the stigma of being confused with Newfoundland by the rest of Canadians. But all that aside, I do find it strange how reputation dictates response. There aren't many regions of a developed country that could go through what Newfoundland did in the 1990s and elicit so little national sympathy. In my estimation, it all comes down to our reputation at that time.
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Old Posted Jan 11, 2018, 11:01 PM
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By looking at Table 051-0017 on Statscan, you can see that Quebec has net interprovincial loss of 754,000 since 1961. Quebec might be completely different if those migrants, mostly anglophones, would have stayed instead. (Canadian Alternate Histories thread..).

Here is a graph regarding language and interprovincial migration in Quebec from 1986 to 2011.



On a side note, Newfoundland and Labrador has a huge -157,700 interprovincial loss since 1961.
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Old Posted Jan 12, 2018, 12:23 AM
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There aren't many regions of a developed country that could go through what Newfoundland did in the 1990s and elicit so little national sympathy. In my estimation, it all comes down to our reputation at that time.
What about Puerto Rico and the US?
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Old Posted Jan 12, 2018, 12:28 AM
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What about Puerto Rico and the US?
Newfoundland: The Puerto Rico of Canada. Despacito b'y!
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Old Posted Jan 12, 2018, 12:36 AM
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At the moment there are about 500,000 Franco-Ontarians. Not all but the vast majority of them are descended from people who once lived in what is today Quebec*.

About as many Ontarians or maybe slightly more are descendants of French Canadians from Quebec but are no longer francophones.
I'm guessing that the Franco-Ontarians that settled in places with large enough numbers to have critical mass were the ones that kept their language rather than assimilated to English. I've read that Ontario (relative to farther east) in the time of New France was sparsely populated by non-natives to begin with aside from military and trading forts, so the bulk of them must have arrived at a time when Anglo settlers (from the Loyalists onward) were already dominant in Ontario. I wonder what their expectation was, moving to a place they probably knew was more Anglo-dominated (did they expect they could keep their language as long as they learned English for business and public life?) or if they expected a lot of hostility for moving from the "French" side of Canada to the "English" one. I suppose though that if they settled in places where they could form their own communities (eg. in rural areas), they could keep their culture alive (kind of like bloc settlements out west).
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Old Posted Jan 12, 2018, 2:50 AM
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newfoundland: The puerto rico of canada. Despacito b'y!
lmao
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Old Posted Jan 12, 2018, 3:35 AM
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lmao
That *was* funny.
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